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 Post subject: Biological Transmutations. C. L. Kervran
PostPosted: Sun Aug 11, 2013 5:42 pm 
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There is an old saying that the plants make the soil”. Prof. Kervran says that daisies settle on lawns lacking in calcium and they “create” the calcium the soil requires. The plant, therefore, in the process of restoring fertility, puts into the soil minerals that it has not taken from it.

The concept of pH as a convenient means of defining alkalinity or acidity has been found to be an over-simplification and, at times, useless in certain aspects of biology. In effect, pH is used to evaluate the acidity or alkalinity of aqueous solutions, but most organic liquids are not solutions in pure water; there are organic acids and bases. As defined by Bronstead, an acid is any molecular structure capable of donating a proton, and an alkali is a structure which can receive or bind it.

The production of carbon monoxide could be endogenous and occur after the inhalation of air which had passed over an incandescent ferrous surface. ( Experiments made in 1964 on rabbits and humans had shown me that this endogenous reaction only takes place when the metal is heated to more than 400 degrees Celcius.)

Chemistry is a science which deals with displacements of electrons in the peripheral atomic layers; it is the science of molecules, not of atomic nuclei. Transmutations involve an alteration in structural arrangements of atoms induced by enzyme activity in living matter. It takes place within the atomic nuclei, therefore it is a new science, quite distinct from chemistry.

So we can say that potassium has two origins: sodium plus oxygen and calcium minus hydrogen. Thus, one of the most important laws of these biological transmutations becomes evident. This particular law governs many reactions with oxygen (oxidation) or hydrogen (reduction), there is also a phenomenon of a much wider and deeper nature than these chemical molecular reactions which are mere ‘couplings’ of peripheral electrons (reactions involving addition or subtraction of carbon).

Transformation of silica into lime. We have refered to siliceous rocks becoming calcareous through the agency of micro-organisms. This is only one example. We have shown in our writings that this property has been known and utilized for a long time. Even in ancient times, horsetail (Equisetum) which is rich in silica, was used for recalcification. Silica yielded lime (formerly it was given to tuberculosis patients to hasten calcification of the lung cavities).

X-ray photographs have shown that bone fractures are healed much more quickly after administration of organic silica extracts obtained from horsetail than after giving calcium. Mineral calcium is a residue, and is not assimilated by the organism. In man and higher animals it exists in a terminal form, but plants and micro-organisms carry out the reverse reaction and utilize calcium. In calcification, therefore, mineral calcium should not be administrated; instead, conditions must be established for the organism to manufacture its own calcium. Nature has several ways of achieving this but an important one involves silica. In man it is organic silica (present in plants only at the period of spring growth) which must be utilized. Mineral or inorganic silica has a contrary or decalcifying effect.

Potassium is associated with heat; magnesium is associated with cold. In dry heat of at least 38°C potassium increases in the human body; living tissues stand cold better when the culture medium is enriched in magnesium.

The hypothesis I had formulated on transmutation of potassium to calcium required proof. Some hens were put in a chicken run with hard clay soil and left without lime; after a few days they had used all their calcium reserve and laid soft-shelled eggs. That same day they were given a pure analyzed mica. The hens, purchased as day old chicks, had been kept in an enclosed area and had never seen any mica, but they fell upon it with distinct relish and pecked so quickly that they became breathless. They stopped for a while than began pecking again. Instinctively they had recognized a substance which would correct their deficiency. The following day the eggs hod normal shells. The experiment was repeated and extended for 40 days: whenever the mica was withheld, soft-shelled eggs reappeared. This confirmed what was already known: potassium cannot be stored up and is both rapidly formed and eliminated. The supply of potassium was transformed by the hens into calcium within 20 hours. An egg takes 8 to 10 days to be formed. The composition of the egg itself depends on the food eaten a week before it is laid, but the shell is produced by a rapid secretion.

In thirty hours a crab can form its shell which, if approximately 17 x 10 cm will weigh about 350 g. Analysis of the animal’s body has shown that only the hepatopancreas stores a little lime before the moult, but its shell contains 40 times more lime than this organ. Well then?

We have seen that magnesium and potassium present in sea water (0.5 % magnesium and 0.05 % potassium salts) can give calcium and it is essentially magnesium which is utilized by crustacea for making their shells. At the Marine Biological Laboratory at Roscoff, a sea crayfish was placed in a tank of sea water from which all lime had been removed by precipitation, and the animal formed its shell just the same.

We can say that nature has three means by which calcium is obtained: potassium + hydrogen; magnesium + oxygen; silicon + carbon.

The silicon-calcium bond is evident also in detailed study of the incubated egg. The new born chick has a bony skeleton which necessarily contains lime, but there is little calcium in the egg, and at birth, the chick’s skeleton has 4 times more lime than is present in the combined yolk and white of egg. The same is true for reptile eggs. The hatched egg shells contain only a very small amount of lime (I.e calcium carbonate; aragonite for tortoises, calcite for all other reptiles – including dinosaurs – as for birds). It should also be mentioned that birds’ eggs have essentially the same composition as those of bathracians and fish, but the two latter have no calcareous envelope.

Diet adopted for commercial poultry production includes lime ( calcium carbonate from chalk or crushed egg shell) to provide a hard shell for eggs . But doctor Horwitz (Institute of Agricultural Research, Volcani, Israel) stated in 1965 that although this mineral lime may be partly used in shell formation, it is also fixed in the tissues, notably the appendix. The hen’s appendix has an important role in antibody production and its calcification renders chickens more susceptible to disease.

Iron can become manganase in ferruginous rocks through the activity of micro-organisms. Prof. Baranger demonstrated that germinating seeds induce the reverse reaction. Seeds contain a store of manganase: on germination this manganase dissapears and there is an increase in iron due to the effect of an enzyme that to date has not been investigated, only the results have been confirmed.

One often hears that algae “fix” the iodine of sea water, but the reverse actually takes place: algae “manufacture” iodine. Also, kelp growing on schists and sandstone rock, “manufacture” bromine which, like iodine, is a halogen (bromine is in the 7th column of the periodic table; fluorine heads the column, followed by chlorine). Chlorellae are powerful transmuting agents due to their intense enzymatic activity they are able to produce 30 – 40 times their own weight of dry matter in a few days). They can produce potassium when sodium is present and research is in progress into transmutations in which they are involved.

Every informed person knows that iron does not come from the earth’s central core. There is no connection between the core and the mineral strata. (?). Iron is the breathing pigment of haemoglobin. In certain land and marine animals, copper is the respiratory pigment in their blood. In other organisms (ascities, tunicates, holothuria, sponges) there is vanadium, but its exact role is debatable.

The geologist de Cayeux, of the Sorbonne, admits that there were no salts in the earth during the Precambrian era. Mineral salt formation began with silica in the Triassic system at the beginning of the Secondary era. In the Triassic period/system clay predominated but there was a small amount of lime. The process continued until the Jurassic period when lime predominated (for ex. In “natural cement” rock I.e Portland cement). At the end of the Secondary era, silica in certain places changed into lime; this was the Cretaccous era. Salts (gypsum, etc.) are not present in those underlying Primary layers which had remained unchanged and de Cayeux asks where these salts came from and their components originated. Only some of the components making up the salts existed in the Primary era and none at all in the Precambrian.

Potassium in the human body is derived mainly from sodium and in many disorders there is an overproduction of potassium; in such instances the intake of sea salt should be reduced. On the other hand, since salt is required in order to produce magnesium, and magnesium yields calcium (as well as phosphorus), there could be a risk of mineral deficiency. In this case the amount of minerals can be reinforced by administrating absorbable magnesium in the form of its carbonate or chloride, or by giving organic silica. Magnesium and silicon can give calcium but not potassium. Certain arthritic conditions have been cured by administering organic silica and a small quantity of added potassium bicarbonate. Healing of bone fractures can be very much accelerated by the use of organic silica, with a little magnesium and potassium.

The averege composition of bone mineral salts is:

Tricalcium phosphate 85%; magnesium phosphate 2%; Calcium carbonate 9%; Calcium fluoride 4%.

In Natural Transmutations I stated that Sahara oilfield workers excreted a daily averege of 320 mg more calcium than they ingested and no decalcification occurred. Therefore, some other ingested element must have enabled the body to make this calcium, which could not have come from chemical substitution, because the body’s available reserves were insufficient for such a great calcium extraction (averages were for a 6 month period). Everything written on calcium metabolism which ignores transmutations must be reconsidered. For example, where recalcification is required, a diet rich in calcium does not necessarily achieve it.

The disturbances due to y-rays are responsible for inactivation of thymine in the DNA which for this reason cannot reproduce unless the damage has been repaired by enzyme synthesis. But with bacteria the speed of reproduction and therefore of recuperation is generally quite considerable. This indicates a very high enzymatic activity and also accounts for bacteria withstanding irradiation several thousand times greater than the lethal dose for higher forms of animal and plant life. The most resistant species to gamma rays seems to be Micrococcus radiodurans.

Trace elements are indispensible. They enter into the structure of coenzymes and if a metal is missing in the coenzyme the enzyme itself is without effect. Among the important trace elements having a multiple role is molybdenum (Mo). After potassium deficiency, as revealed by leaves of hybrid maze, Benton found the leaves to have a much increased molybdunum content. There is no alteration in molybdenum content in the absence of a potassium deficiency. A plant too rich in potassium is at the same time poor in Mo. The reason for this negative correlation between K and Mo is still unknown.

Plants require calcium to make magnesium.

If potassium fertilisers were no longer available, equivalents could be obtained by at least 2 methods: yeast and microscopic algae could produce potassium from sodium or other micro-organisms (as with salpetre) could produce it from calcium. The marked crop increases due to chemical cultivation lasts only a certain time, long enough to stimulate and overfeed micro-organisms, which produce enzymes at too high a rate. In spite of their astonishing ability to adapt themselves to most unusual conditions these organisms can finally be destroyed by prolongation of conditions which prevent their normal reproduction. The soil then dies and remains sterile. Th egreat majority of bacteria (hundreds of millions per gram of soil) can only use carbon and oxygen from organic matter. If only chemical fertilizers are added to the soil without any accompanying organic matter, in a few years the soil life is extinguished.

Mineral products can enter only when they form part of the composition of organic molecules; this involves biological activity which begins in the soil and is carried out by micro-organisms.

Creation of the earth.

Silicon – Aluminium

We can assume that more than 4 bilion years ago our planet was still a gaseous mass rich in nitrogen. The nitrogen, under the effect of solar rays’ cosmic particles etc. would “condense” to silicon.

Graphite is found in rocks which antedate the appearance of vegetation on earth, so carbon could well have an origin other than organic.

Carbon can give magnesium. This is not a matter of imagination. Magnesium has been obtained in a particle accelerator by bombarding carbon with a carbon nucleus.

In the earlier state of the earth’s development the reactions were : 2N = C + O and 2N = Si which should explain the presence of more magnesium in the Precambrian (2C = Mg), that is in the rock preceding the Primary era. Two carbon nuclei united to give magnesium, while the oxygen available for the chemical reactions united with magnesium and silicon. The nitrogen became either C + O or Si, depending on the incidence of radiation showers, which varied with the earth’s rotation.

Transmutation by displacement of a proton inside a molecule

Take the molecule N2, formed from two atoms of nitrogen, each atom having its own nucleus and each nucleus being surrounded by its layer (K-orbit) of two electrons kept equidistant from the center of the molecule by electrical attraction between + charged nuclei and – charged electrons. Let us assume that by an action involving energy (due to an enzyme) a proton becomes displaced by vibrations reaching a resonance peak (vibration frequencies of nuclei inside a molecule are in the infra-red range). At the instant when a proton comes closest to the lower nuclear core, due to the effect of the K layer, it is trapped by the nucleus. Thereupon the higher nuclear core has only one external proton while the lower core has three. The upper one becomes carbon 6C (7N – 1H = 6C) and the lower one becomes oxygen 8O (7N + 1H = 8O). There has been an internal movement of only one proton, the total number of protons, neutrons and electrons remains unchanged. There was neither an emission nor an absorption of particles. We have indeed a transmutation as the nitrogen has become carbon and oxygen.

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