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 Post subject: The Preomorphic Microbial Organisms
PostPosted: Mon Jul 26, 2010 9:48 pm 
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Germs and Viruses

For three centuries bacteria have been considered to be alien and awe inspiring, even by sophisticated professors and dedicated students. Most of us still think that these tiny living beings are primarily germs and pathogens. They are often named by the symptoms they (sometimes) cause: the syphilitic spirochete, the plague bacterium, the cholera vibrio and Legionella. In this book, Dr Sorin Sonea and his late colleague Dr Maurice Panisset, have begun to set the record straight. These organisms are not only our own ancestors but also are the basis of our life-support system. They supply our atmospheric gases, they cleanse our water supply, and, in general, they ensure us a livable environment.

Lyn Margulis, Professor of Biology,
Boston University;
from her Foreword to A New Bacteriology (1980)



All our lives we have been taught that germs are bad, that they are out to harm us. So we bathe daily using plenty of soap, wash our hands constantly and would never think of eating a food morsel picked up from the floor. We give the food morsel instead to the dog, which quickly gulps it down, hoping we will drop some more. But dogs, generally, stay in better health than people; some of the most fastidious people get sick quite often. Maybe there are more important things than germs and viruses to be concerned about; maybe we have the wrong idea about germs.

The principles of human survival are simple enough but because it seems to be human nature to suspect anything simple, we have managed to weave so many complicated theories about human disease, human nutrition and the unique attraction humans have for germs and viruses that we cannot see the forest for the trees. Physiologically, humans are not unique at all, and but for the lifestyle errors they have themselves invented they would have no more reason to fear germs than a scruffy dog gnawing at a dirty old bone.

To understand better the natural relationship between germs and viruses and other forms of life, we must examine the fundamental principles that govern all forms of life on Earth. The first principle is that of symbiosis or coexistence, which states that all forms of life are one way or another dependent on each other, together forming what is known as the"web of life".

Of all forms of life on Earth, the vast majority are too small to be seen with the naked eye, inhabiting every minute space in the soil, water and atmosphere and on and within all larger creatures, and it was from such lowly forms of life that the higher forms evolved and upon which today the higher forms depend completely for their continued existence.

To believe in the evolution of the species doesn't mean you have to be an atheist, nor does it mean you have to accept word for word Charles Darwin's theory. That the higher species evolved from more primitive ones had been evident and speculated upon for centuries, and before Charles was born, his grandfather, Erasmus Darwin, respected doctor, inventor, poet and writer, himself had written a thesis on the subject.

Charles Darwin's theory of evolution was new only in that it presented a plausible explanation of the evolutionary process based on observed phenomena and not too much on imagination. Darwin did not invent the theory of evolution, he invented a theory of how it worked. Darwin believed, at least when his theory was published, that the changes in a species from one generation to another which led eventually to a new species altogether were entirely accidental, random changes, and that such random changes only became permanent if they conveyed an advantage giving a better chance of survival. He called this process "natural selection", and from this concept arose the expression "survival of the fittest".

Darwin's theory evolved in his mind from his observations as a naturalist, and his concept of natural selection is not in dispute. The part of his theory which has always been disputed is the belief that the evolutionary changes are random, occurring entirely by chance.

When the complexity of a single living cell is contemplated, it is inconceivable that random chance events in the wide open spaces--or for that matter, intelligently directed events in a modern laboratory--could ever have produced such an exquisitely complex thing. And even given a complete living cell to start with, and unlimited time, the number of random mutations needed to produce even something as lowly as an earthworm is so infinitely great that for them to occur with the necessary precision and exact sequence by sheer accident is beyond the remotest possibility. A humorous cartoon the author has never forgotten seeing in a color magazine years ago depicts an artist painting a portrait. Disgusted that he cannot get it right, the artist throws all his different colored paints into a bucket and hurls it all at the canvas. Then, looking back over his shoulder as he packs up his things to leave, he is suddenly transfixed. His eyes pop out. There smiling at him from the canvas, arms folded, in all her perfection, is--the Mona Lisa!

If then the supposition is correct that evolution could not occur by chance alone, it must be that there exists in Nature some guiding force which, even if working by trial and error, nevertheless works with a purpose. This was the conclusion arrived at by Darwin himself in his later years when speculating on the intricate structure of the human eye. Louis Pasteur was not the only scientist to have second thoughts on an unproven theory. Thus we talk about "the wisdom of Nature" and of "Nature's grand design", or simply acknowledge God Almighty. Who was it* said: "IfGod did not exist it would be necessary for man to invent him."? Thus it becomes clear that an understanding of evolution does not deny the existence of God; on the contrary, it confirms it.

*Voltaire.

When people talk about human evolution they usually assume it commenced only a few million years ago, starting from an ancestor in the form of some sort of ape. Others refer further back to the origin of the line of primates from which the apes evolved. But going even this far back reveals only changes in shape, size and brain capacity. Biologically and anatomically, the modern human is practically identical to these relatively immediate ancestors. So further and further back you can follow the evolutionary trail--granted with gaps here and there--and find that even earthworms have hearts, blood and immune systems of a rudimentary kind.

Did evolution start then with the first cell as many evolutionists suppose? How far back can we go? Well, if you really want to get involved, you can go back a long way further, because within every cell are contained living components and systems of greater complexity than ever, and research has shown that from the first appearance of life on Earth, it took several billion years for the aerobic cell itself to evolve, whereas all the rest since has taken but a billion years. In evolutionary terms the functioning cell was the breakthrough from which Nature could make trees and animals of all kinds. And finally (but hopefully not too finally) that dubious product, Homo sapiens . . .

What has all this talk of evolution got to do with germs and viruses? Viruses are the most primitive life forms known. By themselves they are inert and apparently lifeless, requiring combination with components within living cells before exhibiting lifelike characteristics. It is conjectured whether at one time they were part of the evolution of cells or whether they are unwanted remnants of the process. Viruses are of different sizes, the largest known being very much smaller than the smallest bacteria (germs), which are in fact simple cells. Some bacteria are aerobic (require oxygen) and some are anaerobic, depending on whether oxygen is available to them or not, being capable of change according to the state of their immediate environment.

All living things on Earth are interdependent on other living things, the entire scenario being in a rather fine balance. The upsetting of this balance even just a little may result in the extinction of some life forms and drastic changes in others struggling to survive. We are now getting closer to the point, which is: what part of the scheme of things do germs and viruses play?

All forms of life are capable, in varying degrees, of adapting to environmental changes, and germs and viruses have been doing that from time immemorial. They are part of the scenario of life, they have a role to fill and a purpose to serve as part of Nature's "Grand Design".

When Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) constructed one of the first effective optical microscopes, he was astounded at the complexity of miniature life forms that inhabited the world unseen to the naked eye. In a drop of clear water were myriads of tiny microbes of different kinds moving about. Similar microbes are everywherein the air, the soil, the water and within living tissue. Van Lceuwenhoek said: "I have had several gentlewomen in my house who are keen on seeing the little eels in vinegar [nematodes], but some of them were so disgusted at the spectacle that they vowed they would never use vinegar again. But what if one should tell such people in future that there are more animals living in the scum on the teeth in a man's mouth, than there are men in the whole kingdom?"

Thus since before the higher forms of life began to appear, the world has been teeming with bacteria (germs), which micro-organisms form the basis of all other forms of life. They manufacture soil out of rock, destroy unhealthy tissues of plants and animals, break down dead tissues of plants and animals to be used again, and actually form an essential part of the body and body functions of all animals. In this latter regard the behavior of the various forms of bacteria normal in the body is dependent on the environment within the body (which should be healthy but very often in humans is not), and it is only when the milieu interieur becomes deteriorated that many normal bacteria change from a benign form to a pathological form, again as a natural consequence. In Nature it is the survival of the species that counts, and individuals are expendable for the survival of the majority. The weak or sickly in the wild are not tolerated to handicap the group, and one way or another are soon eliminated by predators appointed for the purpose. C'est la vie. So when a person allows a pathological condition of body chemistry to develop within them they should realize that what follows is not a perversity of fate or an unlucky encounter with germs of a criminal nature, but merely another step in a natural sequence of events.

The scientist who in the 19th Century made the greatest contribution to the science of microbiology was Antoine Bechamp* (1816-1908), many of whose discoveries, all recorded in the annals of the French Academy of Science, have erroneously been credited to Louis Pasteur** (1822-1895)

*Professor Pierre Jaques Antoine Bechamp, Chevalier of the Legion of Honour; Commander of the Rose of Brazil; Officer of Public Instruction; Master of Pharmacy; Doctor of Science; Doctor of Medicine; Professor of Medical Chemistry and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Montpellier; Fellow and Professor of Physics and of Toxicology Higher School of Pharmacy, Strasbourg; Professor Chemistry, Strasbourg; Member of the Imperial Academy of Medicine of France and the Society of Pharmacy of Paris; Member of the Agricultural Society of Mulhouse for the discovery of manufacturing process of aniline; Silver Medallist of the Committee of Historic works and of Learned Societies, for discoveries in wine production; Professor of Biological Chemistry and Dean of the Faculty of Medicine of Lille.

**Bechamp or Pasteur? A Lost Chapter in the History of Biology (1923) by E. Douglas Hurne (founded on a manuscript by Montague R. Leverson, MD (Baltimore) MA Ph.D.

There was no love lost between the two French scientists, whose personalities were entirely different, and the record shows that although Pasteur plagiarised much of Bechamp's work, his popularity survived largely because of the favor he curried from Napoleon III and the High Church. On the other hand, Bechamp was immersed entirely in his work, seeking neither favor or fortune, and although devout in his religious faith he was held in disfavor by the Bishops of the Church, who could not comprehend the unconventional manner in which he expressed his faith.

Before Bechamp's time the theory of the cell being the basic unit of life was well established, but Bechamp's investigations showed that the cell itself was made up of smaller living entities capable of intelligent behavior and self-reproduction. He referred to these as 'molecular granulations' and gave them the name of microzymas, which he said were the real basic units of life.

Bechamp described how in certain conditions microzymas could develop into bacteria within a cell and could, if the right conditions persisted, become pathological, so that infection could develop in the body without the acquisition of the germ from an outside source. These observations supported the belief of Professor Claude Bernard (1813-78), who contended that no matter where germs came from they presented a danger only if the body was in a run-down state due to a disturbed milieu interieur.

Because other researchers without Bechamp's finesse had not observed the changes in form capable by various microbes, it was believed in orthodox circles that each form of the same microbe, at the time it was observed, was an entirely different microbe in its own right which remained always the same. Thus as the 19th Century came to a close, two schools of thought existed: pleomorphism as propounded by Bechamp and Ernst Almquist (1852-1946) of Sweden, and monomorphism as propounded by Pasteur and Robert Koch* (1843-1910) of Germany. About this time Germany became predominant in world medical research, and because the germ theory of disease had become firmly entrenched in the minds of orthodox doctors, the research into microbiology became focussed more on medical problems than on the general study of biology.

*Robert Koch (see footnote in Chapter 6) had noted but never investigated the pleomorphic forms of the typhoid bacillus.

Nevertheless, evidence supporting the concept of pleomorphism kept appearing. * In 1907 Doctors A. Neisser and Rudolph Massine described the mutation-like phenomena in a strain of B coli, and in 1914 Philip Eisenberg published a series of papers on bacterial variability. A similar study was published in 1918 by bacteriologist Karl Baerthlein, which later received high praise from Dr Phillip Hadley, University of Pittsburg, in his paper "Microbic Disassociation" (Journal of Infectious Diseases, Vol. 40, 1927).

*In the chapter which follows it is described how in the study of the disease beriberi, ten different researchers reported they had discovered the germ that caused the disease. Each germ was different and none of them turned out to be the cause at all, but what is indicated is the probability that at least some of the microbes isolated from beriberi patients represented different stages of pleomorphism.

In 1898, Guenther Enderlein (1872-1968) graduated with honors in natural sciences, physics and zoology from Leipzig University, and in 1914 he became a bacteriologist and serologist at the German military hospital at Stettin. Enderlein had studied the findings of Antoine Bechamp and had further studied under Rudolph Leuckart, the zoologist who initiated the modern science of parasitology, and also under Otto Schmidt, the doctor who in 1901 reported the discovery of parasites in the blood of cancer patients. (Schmidt was not the first to discover cancer parasites. As early as 1890 Scottish pathologist William Russell reported on widely variegated microbes present in all cancer tissue, which microbes were referred to as "Russell bodies".)

It was in 1916 while studying typhus that Dr Enderlein observed microscopic living entities in blood samples which he called protits, which could move, unite with other microorganisms and disappear. Later on, using dark field microscopy, he observed that these micro-organisms could change in form through a cycle of countless variations, and he also described how different types of protein-based micro-organisms flourished in blood cells and plasma of all animals, representing an essential part of the normal life process. As part of the normal life process, these microorganisms live together within the body in a mutually beneficial relationship known as symbiosis. However, he noted that with any deterioration of the body's interior environment in which the pH of the blood becomes either acid or strongly alkaline* the normally harmless microbes would begin to change and in stages evolve into forms of a pathogenic nature, just as Bechamp had said. Enderlein recorded these observations in his book Bakterien Cyclogenic (The Life Cycle of Bacteria), published in 1925 (translated from the German by Dr Phillip Hadley), at which time he became a member of the Microbiological Society of Vienna of which he was later to become president.

*Cholera is a disease characterized by the onset of diarrhoea and occurs in different degrees from mild to fatal; the etiology of the mild forms is uncertain in the presence of varying kinds of bacilli (germs) but Asiatic or true cholera is transmitted by a bacillus called Vibrio cholera, a member of a large group of gram-negative, comma-shaped bacteria that are morphologically indistinguishable from one another. Some of these bacteria appear normally and symbiotically in the body and are often found associated with mild diarrhoea. However, true cholera can be transmitted by a germ different to Vibrio cholera called El Tor vibrio which, unlike Vibrio cholera, can be found in the absence of disease as well. Another fact about the cholera germ which further supports Dr Enderlein's thesis is that it thrives best in a strongly alkaline milieu.

Dr Enderlein's sixty years of research using more refined equipment achieved discoveries which precisely duplicated those of Bechamp and confirmed Bechamp's views. Enderlein found that::

1. The cell does not represent the primary living unit of the body. Instead the primary units were tiny biological units which he called protits which live within the cells.
2. The blood is not sterile, but contains micro-organisms capable of causing mischief given the proper milieu.
3. Certain micro-organisms undergo an exact, scientifically verifiable growth cycle.

Presently Dr Enderlein's findings continue to be confirmed by Dr Erik Enby of Gothenburg, Sweden, where he practises biological medicine and is assistant physician at the Vasa Hospital. Dr Enby's observations of microorganisms are done using interference contrasting microscopy.

Shortly after Bakterien Cyclogenic was published, American researchers F. Loenis and N.R. Smith collaborated to write Studies of the Life Cycles of Bacteria, which Enderlein welcomed as sufficient support to finally finish the pleomorphism vs monomorphism argument, but as always the orthodox medical establishment was not interested in anything which did not agree with the textbooks and the monomorphic dogma contained therein. Another "medical heretic" was Dr William F. Koch, BA MA Ph.D MD,* of Detroit, whose life's work was the study of the biochemistry in disease. In his book The Survival Factor in Neoplastic and Viral Diseases (1961) he says:

"Glover showed in 1923 that the cancer virus existed in a pleomorphic form that was a bacillus in one phase and coccus in another, and virus in the third phase. He also showed it could exist in a fungus or mycelium phase. The latter form has been identified lately by Irene Diller and some others, and the whole chain of forms was independently proved by von Brehmer in the last few decades as well. The work was thoroughly repeated and proved by my friend Jacob Engel and George Clark, at the US PHS Laboratories but, for reasons we will not discuss, they were not allowed to publish their findings."

*See Chapter 12.

In 1933, Dr Wilhelm von Brehmer stated his belief in the theory that cancer was a constitutional disease related to diet and lifestyle, and in his book Sipohonospora Polymorpha von Brehmer he identified this blood parasite (S.p.), a bacterial form of the fungi Mucor racemosus, as a carcinogenic agent present in cancerous growth. His research showed that excessive alkalinity of the blood permitted lower forms of mucor to develop into pathogenic rods. (When S.p. was again discovered by Dr Virginia Livingstone Wheeler of San Diego she called it "Progenitor Cryptocides", while other doctors just called it the cancer microbe.)

Not only cancer, but all chronic pathological conditions display in the blood various pleomorphic microorganisms which originate from within the body itself to proliferate and participate in the disease process. Dr Raymond Brown, formerly of the Sloan Kettering Institute for Cancer Research, in his book AIDS, Cancer, and the Medical Establishment (1986) says:

"Pleomorphic organisms are demonstrable as the silent stage of a gamut of infections that include Tuberculosis, Syphilis, Leprosy, Rheumatic Fever, Undulant Fever, Typhoid, and Candida. They have been repeatedly found in diseases of undetermined etiology: Arthritis, Cancer, Multiple Sclerosis, Sarcoid Collagen Disease, Whipple's Disease, Crohn's Disease, and Kaposi's Sarcoma."

Additional up-to-date information on pleomorphism is revealed in the 1981 book Symbiosis in Cell Evolution by Dr Lynn Margulis of Boston University:

"A very few eukaryotes* and protoctists, and a few fungi, are tolerant to anaerobic conditions, but under such conditions the mitochondria shrink (sometimes until they are invisible) and become non-functional. This differentiation is reversible; the organisms retain the capacity to re-differentiate the mitochondria."

*Eukaryotes are cells which have a nucleus; prokaryotes are cells which have no nucleus.

It was the constant observations of differently described microbes in the blood and tissues of cancer patients that eventually prompted the US National Institute of Health to launch a full-scale investigation as to whether cancer was virus caused, which investigation in the 1970s (President Nixon's War Against Cancer) showed that the so-called cancer virus was resultant to the disturbed body chemistry which precedes cancer and not the cause of it, a fact stated over the last hundred years by many distinguished cancer researchers.

That germs from outside the body can cause disease in susceptible people is not disputed. There are many instances of epidemics so caused, such as the cholera epidemic of 1854 in Lambeth, London, when water supplied by one particular street pump became contaminated by a cesspool, and many people using that pump came down with cholera, while people nearby, using a different supply, suffered no cholera. The epidemic stopped as soon as the pump was de-activated.

Probably the most well-known case of infection by human contact occurred not long before that in 1847 when there was an appalling death rate among women in childbirth at a hospital in Vienna. The doctor in charge, Ignaz Semmelweis,* realized that the cause of the puerperal sepsis infecting women was that many of the doctors were in the habit of attending the women immediately after having been vivisecting corpses elsewhere in the hospital and that none of them washed their hands. When Semmelweis insisted all doctors must wash their hands in chlorinated water before attending at childbirths, the death rate among mothers dropped quickly from 18% to less than 3%.

*Semmelweis was not the first to realize the cause of puerperal sepsis. Dr Charles White of Manchester had come to the correct conclusion in 1773, and by 1835 Dr Robert Collins of Ireland had effectively reduced mortality among women in childbirth in his hospital in Dublin. Oliver Wendell Holmes, philosopher, poet and physician, while Professor of Anatomy at Dartmouth College, USA, also concluded that puerperal sepsis resulted from doctors proceeding direct to conducting childbirths without washing their hands after treating septic wounds elsewhere in the hospital. He had observed as well that it was not uncommon for doctors to suffer infection, sometimes fatal, after having cut themselves accidentally while performing an autopsy. Holmes wrote a heated paper on the topic in 1843, which was put down as nonsense by the so-called experts on childbed fever, and he republished the paper titled "Puerperal Fever as a Private Pestilence" in 1855, which although again rejected by the medical establishment thereafter gradually gained acceptance.

Semmelweis' ideas were never accepted in Austria during his lifetime and he died of blood poisoning from a wound in the hand in 1865.

This case is particularly interesting because it demonstrates not only the cases both for and against the germ theory, but at the same time the case for pleomorphism, the changing of microbes from one form into another. A healthy body's milieu interieur is alkaline in nature with a pH of 7.2-7.6 (7.0 being neutral), any variation either way tending towards disease. In acidic conditions morbidity increases in proportion to acidity, and after death the acidity becomes much stronger, providing the environment for the body to decompose. The dead tissues self-destruct in the process called autolysis under the influence of the natural enzyme, cathepsin, and the action of natural bacteria which appear automatically when the acid condition occurs. Where do these bacteria come from? Answer: they have been in the body all the time but in a different form which is harmless.

They are the bacteria Mucor racemosus fresen which, as stated by Dr Enderlein and Dr von Brehmer, change in form according to the state of the milieu interieur, from its harmless, symbiotic stage through a number of other stages (which are reversible) to become pathogenic and finally tissue destructive. In this final phase the bacteria, now resembling a fungus, is most pathogenic, and on the unwashed hands of the doctors from the dissecting room were a lethal threat to anyone susceptible to them.

But not every woman in Semmelweis' maternity section was susceptible, and even at the worst time, eighty-two out of a hundred escaped the deadly puerperal sepsis. Many hundreds of people in Lambeth died of cholera in the cholera epidemic; they were the susceptible ones--the unsusceptible ones escaped.

Maybe a better illustration of susceptibility and unsusceptibility is given by Sir Albert Howard in his book The Role of Insects and Fungi in Agriculture. In the livestock industry, foot and mouth disease is considered so deadly that entire herds are destroyed and burned once the disease appears in any of the animals to prevent it spreading to other farms. But Sir Albert had this to say:

"For twenty one years [1910-31] I was able to study the reaction of well-fed animals to epidemic diseases, such as rinderpest, foot-and-mouth disease, septicemia and so forth, which frequently devastated the countryside. None of my animals were segregated, none were inoculated; they frequently came in contact with diseased stock. No case of infectious disease occurred. The reward of well-nourished protoplasm was a very high degree of disease resistance; which might even be described as immunity."

In his book Soil, Grass and Cancer (Crosby Lockwood, London, 1959), French author Andre Voisin, biochemist and agriculturist, demonstrated how health and disease are related to the soil via the nutritional quality of the crops produced thereon. In regard to foot and mouth disease in cattle, Voisin quoted German and French data showing the disease hardly ever occurred in granite and sandy regions, but that sometimes in soils high in lime it affected up to eighty per cent of animals. The susceptibility to the disease Voisin ascribed to copper deficiency, which prevented the animals producing enough catalase, the predominant protective enzyme of the immune system.

Similar examples of lowered catalase in both humans and animals that permitted otherwise harmless germs to act pathogenically to produce different disease symptoms were given, and as the title of the book indicates, the importance of trace minerals in the prevention of cancer was emphasized.

In regard to tuberculosis Voisin said:

"The lungs of each one of us are inhabited by millions of tuberculosis bacilli, which we manage to accommodate quite well. They live there very peacefully without delivering frenzied attacks against our cells. Why then, do they suddenly thrust themselves upon one of our organs (most often the lungs) and make us tuberculosis sufferers?"

Voisin then went on to demonstrate how defective nutrition is the underlying problem, the milk from tuberculous cows having no bearing on the matter because the human victim's bacillus is already present, with or without the milk. As for the tuberculous cows, they do not have to be destroyed; like their human counterparts all they need is better pastures and conditions.

That healthy humans are every bit as disease resistant as healthy farm animals is borne out by an extract from the book Immune for Life by Arnold Fox, MD, of Los Angeles, former Assistant Professor of Medicine, University of California, Irvine:

"Many years ago, as a resident in Internal Medicine at Los Angeles County Hospital, I was in charge of the adult infectious-disease ward. For ten to fifteen hours a day, I was exposed to just about every infectious illness you can imagine. These patients had tuberculosis, meningitis, the very deadly septicemia and other dangerous diseases. They coughed and sneezed on me; I got their blood, sweat and even feces on my hands. But I didn't 'catch' any of their diseases. My 'doctor within' kept me in perfect health.

Some time later I was transferred from the infectious-disease ward and into surgery. Months later I came down with meningitis, a potentially deadly infection of the covering of the brain. I hadn't been near anyone with meningitis who could have given' me the disease. What happened was that I was working double shifts, going to every class and lecture offered, and moonlighting as well. I had run my immune system down to the ground."

The experience of Dr Fox is not unique, being common to all doctors, nurses and other hospital staff all around the world, and the great wonder of medicine is that Pasteur's germ theory of disease holds on in peoples' minds the way it does.

That a healthy body can resist infection even in unhygienic circumstances seems to surprise a lot of people, the author's wife included. Recently I was engaged in unloading some old planks from my truck, and I ripped my right index finger to the bone just above the knuckle on a rusty nail. As the blood spurted out I could see the cut needed stitching, but I figured I would finish unloading the truck if I could stem the bleeding. In the truck was some old rag I had tied around some garden stakes so I tore off a strip, bandaged the wound and finished unloading. Back at the house my wife insisted I should go to the local hospital to have the wound sterilised, stitched and so forth, to escape the "deadly" tetanus* germ, but as by this time the bleeding had stopped completely, I simply rebandaged the wound over the dried blood and dirt without so much as washing it, and put my trust in Nature. I recalled that as a boy my frequent wounds sometimes festered and took ages to heal but now over fifty years later I figured I was healthier and things would be different. The wound would of course have been better stitched because my hand movements would not permit it to close properly, but nevertheless it healed completely in a bit over a week but left an ugly scar which made me regret not having it stitched. However, I was surprised that as a few more weeks went by the raised scar diminished so that now only the faintest suggestion of a scar remains.

*The reason why people with good blood need have no fear of tetanus is made clear in a statement taken from Dr Otto Warburg's lecture "The Prime Cause and Prevention of Cancer" given at the meeting of Nobel Laureates at Landau, Germany, on 30 June 1966 (see Chapter 12):

"If it is true that the replacement of oxygen-respiration by fermentation is the prime cause of cancer, then all cancer cells without exception must ferment, and no normal growing cell ought to exist that ferments in the body.

An especially simple and convincing experiment performed by the Americans Mahngren and Flanegan confirms that view. If one injects tetanus spores, which can germinate only at very low oxygen pressures, into the blood of healthy mice, the mice do not sicken with tetanus, because the spores find no place in the normal body where the oxygen pressure is sufficiently low . . . However, if one injects tetanus spores into the blood of tumor-bearing mice, the mice sicken with tetanus, because the oxygen pressure in the tumors can be so low that the spores can germinate. These experiments demonstrate in a unique way the anaerobiosis of cancer cells and the non-anaerobioses of normal cells."

The reason my hand did not become infected was that I am not susceptible to infection, which is why I never "catch" colds or flu either.

Thus it becomes very clear that the real cause of infectious diseases is whatever it is that renders a person susceptible. And we know what that something is: it is the absence of homeostasis in the body brought about by a disturbed milieu interieur.

"The body is the temple of the soul", so it is said, and germs are natural inhabitants of it, some of which assist in the day to day running of the temple and some which, when the temple begins to decay, perform to more quickly complete its destruction.

As Robert Ingersoll said: "In Nature there are neither rewards or punishments. There are consequences."


Addendum to Germs and Viruses

If I could live my life over again, I would devote
it to proving that germs seek their natural
habitat, diseased tissue, rather than being the
cause of the diseased tissue.
Rudolph Virchow (1821-1902)

The long-standing confusion about germs can be understood when it is considered that, even within the restrictions limiting the powers of visual light microscopes (as compared to the electron microscope), there are worlds within worlds, depending on which range of magnification is being explored and whether the design of the microscope permits the study of living tissue (blood and cells) or only that which is dead.

Dr Abraham Baron, B.Sc MSc Ph.D, Professor of bacteriology, biochemistry and physiology at Long Island University 1935-1941, wrote the book Man Against Germs (1958, Robert Hale, London) in which he describes "monomorphically" the different microbes and the diseases associated with them. Then right at the end in the final chapter on Q Fever, to Dr Baron's puzzlement, pleomorphism enters the scene:

"These germs, a new and unusual species of Rickettsia, are extraordinary; they are remarkably adaptable and incredibly vigorous. They can assume any size and any shape, sub-dividing into almost invisible granules as small as the smallest of the viruses, or growing out into large coarse filaments, but in any form their virulence remains undiminished. They can infect any species of animal, animal to man, or man to man. The full account of their potentialities still escapes the formulae of science and medicine. Q Fever is more than just a disease; it is the key to a law of Nature." (author's italics)

Then in his final paragraphs, Professor Baron (without knowing it) described Antoine Bechamp's microzymas, which but for the dogmatism of Pasteur and Koch he would have learned about at medical school instead of at the end of his career:

"Within the protoplasm of our living cells, there is a miscellany of small strange particles that vaguely resemble bits of string, or tiny spheres, or miniature corkscrews. And ever since the microscope was discovered, many generations of scientists have peered and poured over them and disputed their significance. Some claim that these particles in the human protoplasm are extremely important, possessing certain vital (but unspecified) functions, while others believe they are trivial with trivial functions. And still others insist that these particles have no function at all, that they are shadowy "nothings" that exist only in the overwrought imaginings of over-enthusiastic scientists, or as imperfections in their microscopes, their straining eyes or their laboratory technique. Although the embattled scientists agree neither on the status or the functions of these protoplasmic particles, they are compelled to agree at the least on a casus belli, even if only to deny that it exists. The most bitter opponents of their existence must call these strange particles something, and so some of them have been named--centrioles, mitochondria, nucleoli, plastids, vacuoles, inclusions, Golgi network, granules, globules, filaments, fibers, fibrilles, and "ad infinitum".

There are other scientists who study human protoplasm in quite another manner and are completely uninterested in the particles within the human living cells. From their researches on immunity to disease, they have deduced that certain germs (the viruses of poliomyelitis, for example) first infect and cause disease and thereafter never leave the human body. Then the germs no longer cause disease, but they remain alive though inert for a human lifetime.

There is still another school of scientists who probe into the disputed interior of living human cells. They have discovered that they can extract germs from healthy uninfected, undiseased human cells. The germs they extract are alive and will grow on human tissue, but never cause disease. The scientists are convinced that there are always living germs buried deeply within human protoplasm."

And so, more puzzled at the end of his long career than he was as a student, but ever so close to the answer he was seeking, Professor Baron concludes his book:

"If we have correctly interpreted Nature's law, then all our disease germs will change from antagonism to co-existence, and turn from dangerous bits of alien life into inconspicuous particles within our living cells. Perhaps far ahead in the future in a disease-free world, the descendants of germs and men will live together harmoniously in a mingling of protoplasm--a perfect symbiosis of men and germs."

I have included Professor Baron's remarks for two very important reasons. Without realizing it, the professor has illustrated clearly the fundamental errors in thinking that have prevented any worthwhile progress in medicine for over one hundred years:

1. The unswerving belief in the monomorphic nature of germs despite all the evidence they are polymorphic, a phenomenon witnessed and described by Professor Baron himself.
2. The belief that germs and viruses are "dangerous bits of alien life" out to harm us.

The professor has indeed correctly interpreted Nature's laws insofar as Nature is desirous that germs and men should co-exist harmoniously, but he fails to realize that to achieve this state of "perfect symbiosis" we do not have to look far ahead into the future at all, because it is available to us right now and always has been. Whether germs behave like dangerous bits of alien life or like inconspicuous particles is entirely up to us and how we choose to look after our milieu interieur.

And in case you think that antibiotics and vaccines offer a way to cheat the system, I suggest that would be as dangerous an error as ever medical science has devised. Nature cannot be fooled, and her justice is uncompromising.

Source: Ross Thorne - Health & Survival in the 21st Century

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 Post subject: Re: The Preomorphic Microbial Organisms
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STRUCTURE
Every cell (both animal and vegetable) is composed of just two types of living units, knobbed rods and granules, both demonstrated by Tissot. These two subcellular components, or intra-cellular bionts, may be reduced ultimately to simply one living entity, the microzyma of Béchamp. When we consider that Hofmeister has estimated that there are 200,000 billion molecules in a cell (a liver cell, for example) we get some notion of the range of possibilities at the molecular level. Extensive studies of normal animal and vegetable cells show that the two subcellular, primal components are both capable of independent existence, growth, and multiplication. The first is a structural component, many of which are joined to form the stroma, the fibrous mesh of all protoplasm. This mesh is constructed out of "sticks" of varying lengths with knobbed ends. The union of several chromophilic knobs is easily seen. They have been variously named, but usually are called simply chromophilic granules. The free, mobile mitochondria often described are simply artefacts produced by improper preparation of the specimen, which destroys and clumps several of the normal sticks into large chunks. The normal "dumb-bell" units (so named from their shape) have a typical formation and growth which are everywhere maintained. As such they form the real structural component of all cells.

FUNCTION OF THE "DUMB-BELLS"
The knobbed sticks ("dumb-bells" of Tissot) form a reticular framework throughout both the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the cell. This framework (linin) may be thought of as somewhat resembling a three-dimensional spider web. In the tissue fluid within the interspaces of this stroma are the chemically active granular microzymas. Many stoichio-chemical changes and changes in colloid chemistry occur within the cell. Some molecules are large: Albumin, C1428H2244O462S14. There are more than 1000 enzymes in every cell.

The Granular Biont
The second subcellular, primal unit is a granule, free and mobile, having Brownian movement. It is the active agent of all enzymes of the body and is the functional component of all the body fluids and secretions. Hence the "dumb-bell" unit is the structural agent of all cells, while the granule is the chemist of the cells. There is a possibility that the "dumb-bell" unit is a more advanced stage of the granule; it possesses a stalk, and a new granule grows at the tip of stalk. In this case there is but one primal life form as envisaged by Béchamp, called by him the microzyma, but it functions in the two elementary forms, the stick and the granule, which perform the basic work of structure and function. They are the builder and the chemist. All cells are composed exclusively of these two formed and viable units.[...]

SPECIALIZATION
All cells secrete. The best known secretions are enzymes and diastases hormones blood plasma cerebro-spinal fluid milk saliva perspiration urine pus toxins antitoxins and other antibodies All the secretions are produced out of and by specialized intracellular bionts, and all the secretions contain numbers of these living microzymas, which, if filtered out, inactivated, or killed, leave the secretion impotent. Each of the cells in the body is specialized to a certain degree and fulfills the specific function of the tissue. This implementation is dependent upon the granule, which also provides specialization of enzymic function characteristic of each area. The little granules are the active agents, the basic chemists, of all the digestive juices; they are the active agents of blood coagulation. In fact, the blood platelets are just small clumps of the granules. In the clumps their action is diminished because their exposed surface is reduced. When they are scattered out as free granules, they rapidly hydrolyze the prothrombin (which is a combination of lecithins) and set free the fatty acids. These in turn neutralize the sodium portion of the fibrinogen, thus reducing its solubility. Hence there is a precipitation with the formation of a web of fibrin which entangles the granules. The active granules can be isolated, and when they are removed from any of the enzymes, the enzymic action is lost. When they are taken from the blood, it does not coagulate. When they are removed from milk, it does not clot to form a curd. When the granules are removed from saliva and the other digestive juices, they lose their enzymic action. When the granules are removed from toxins, they lose their antigenic properties and become totally impotent. The same is true of antitoxins. They are utterly functionless without their granules. Without the little chemists there is no function of secretions. Their functions vary with their environment, but they are basically the same chemist wherever found and whatever they do. Further discussion of the variation of function will be dealt with later. The preceding material has been devoted exclusively to normal healthy organisms, their structure and their function. The essential point is that all cells, both animal and vegetable, are composed of not many kinds but only two subcellular units, one the structural unit and the other the chemical activator. These are the "dumbbell" sticks which form the framework of all cytoplasm and nucleus, and the tiny granules that are present in all the normal cells and their products.[...]

BACTERIOLOGY
In response to variation in environmental influence there are many characteristics which the intracellular bionts may assume. [...] If a pathogenic micro-organism is present as a part of that stirring experience which initiates the disease process, then the metamorphosis of intracellular bionts will tend toward assuming form and function similar to that of the "invader." In the course of the disease process the bionts may be modified and go through the following stages: clumping, sprouting, spore formation, virus formation, development of any bacterial form, and/or interchange of forms. Tissot studied and described these stages at length. The clumping of the bacteria produces the leukocytic forms described elsewhere, which under favorable conditions begin to sprout and send out filaments. These clumps are the germinal centers of the mold forms frequently seen in laboratories. These germinal centers send out filaments or mycelia which usually fragment soon into spores and various bacterial forms, or, if the nervous system has been sufficiently normalized, they fragment into normal granules and are then used as building material for normal, healthy body cells. If the fragments are abnormal and submicroscopic in size, they are called virus forms. Jordan and other bacteriological authorities state that the filterable forms of bacteria are well known, because under certain conditions the bacteria do break down to granular form and are capable of re-integration to again become typical bacteria.

All standard bacteriology texts devote considerable space to admitting that cocci and bacilli are interchangeable; they devote a section to the non-pathogenic forms of each bacterium and almost admit that there is only one bacterium with many disguises. Response to an injurious experience causes a modification of the cells and of their various components, and various degenerative changes occur. As the cells degenerate and disintegrate, they set free the two primal units of life and these in turn are capable of independent existence. This degeneration and the consequent perversion and modification of the two primal units thus gives us a real insight into pathological processes. Tissot studied the various modified forms intensively and found that they usually take on a bacterial nature. These new, perverted forms of the granules are seen as cocci of various types: staphylococci, streptococci, micrococci, diplococci, pneumococci, and others; as rod-shaped organisms known as the colon bacillus, tetanus bacillus, proteus vulgaris, the various clostridia found with gangrene, and other rods.

These are now modified forms acting as free agents. In pathological tissue preparations and in pure cultures they are seen gradually to enter a clumping routine. As they clump together, they fuse into a single unit. This fused unit of a bacterial clump then sprouts and emits long filaments, until it becomes a typical mold. Such molds are commonly seen in laboratory examinations, but they are discounted as contaminants. Hence the pathologists and bacteriologists are naively missing the truth, because they have learned too many untruths. It is not only what we do not know that hurts us; it is the many things we do "know" that are not true that damage our efficiency and make us do foolish things. The sad result is that many persons are killed by others who are sincerely trying to help.

In order to demonstrate clearly this metamorphosis of typical bacteria into molds and the reverse, it may help to discuss the technics that Tissot used. Molds ordinarily flourish at twenty to twenty-five degrees centigrade on rather dry media. Bacteria (pathogens) "prefer" thirty-seven degrees and fluid medium. Hence a gradual lowering of temperature and a drying of the solid medium will encourage the change from bacterial form to mold form. Seeding the spores of any of the vegetable molds on a suitable fluid medium will lead rapidly to a growth of mycelia. As these mycelia (filaments) proliferate, the temperature can be gradually raised to approach thirty-seven degrees. After the typical molds have developed, the tips of the filaments at a certain stage of their development break off as tiny spores which are identical with the perverted granules of the degenerated cells. At some stages they break off as matured bacterial forms, various cocci or bacilli. The major feature of this startling picture is the fused clump which is the germinal center of the mold: It is identical with the usual mononuclear leukocyte. Many observations have shown that pure bacterial cultures undergo this same type of bacterial clumping, a fusion into a mononuclear "cell" and subsequent mold formation.

The last of the bacteria approaching fusion into the mass give it the appearance of phagocytosis. This indicates that phagocytosis is really not a defense mechanism of bacterial destruction, but a stage of maturation of the subcellular primal life forms after the cellular disintegration has occurred which released them temporarily as free agents. All the other antibodies, the antitoxins, agglutinins, opsonins, and so forth, are simply phases in the maturation of bacterial forms into molds. Hence the body is not combatting the bacteria and attempting to kill the germs, but rather is speeding their maturation into a more tolerable form from which a subsequent reclamation is made to return the "delinquent" granules to a normal useful form.

Tissot demonstrated a similarity between animal tissue metamorphosis and vegetable tissue metamorphosis. In their normal states the cellular components of animal and vegetable tissue are distinctly different as units, and they carry on different functions. They are, however, basically the same bionts, either the sticks or the granules. They become specialized and adapted to their different environments. It is this specialization that makes them distinctly animal or vegetable tissues. Since they are basically the same bionts, they can metamorphose into identical bacterial forms. This is discussed at length by Tissot in one section of his work describing how he developed typical diphtheria pathology and the typical Klebs-Löffler bacillus from a few grains of bacteriologically sterile barley (chemically sterilized surface). Tissot demonstrated the ability of bionts taken from either an animal tissue culture or a cereal culture to initiate an identical metamorphosis in a culture of the other. He performed experiments showing that aseptic biopsies of normally healthy animal tissues metamorphose directly into typical molds which, if they are kept under optimum conditions, are vegetable in nature. If these aseptic biopsies are kept more moist and warmer, then the normal healthy animal tissues metamorphose directly into typical bacteria. Remember that this happens by degeneration of tissue and perversion of the bionts, the subcellular living units, in response to a "perversion" of their environment.

One caution is this: Do not consider all bacteria as pathogens. Over ninety per cent are quite harmless, and the majority of them are absolutely indispensable in the overall ecology. Without them there would be no life as we know it. Even plants cannot use free nitrogen from the air without bacterial help. They cannot use manure, until the bacteria break it down for them. Bacteriologically sterile soil will not support plant life. Tissot says that the bionts are of a bacterial nature, although they are not the usual familiar bacteria of laboratory studies, At any rate, without them there would be no action of the body enzymes; in fact there would be no body processes at all. Without the bionts there would be no clotting of blood and no healing of wounds (as discussed later). In case there is a modification of the bionts into a typical bacterial form which can be recognized and named as a pathogenic organism, still no recognizable disease will develop unless the nervous system of the host is perverted. "The power of a microbe to produce morbid effects or changes depends, therefore, as much upon the nature of the host as upon its own characteristics." (General Bacteriology--Jordan and Burrows) Much more will be said upon this subject when we come to discuss etiology.

Extensive studies of the bacteria show definitely that there are no fixed species. The cocci become bacilli and spirilla, and vice versa. Streptococci and pneumococci interchange. All bacteria either acquire or lose virulence depending upon their environment. Bacteria change to molds and vice versa, in response to adequate environmental stimulus. Furthermore, they can resolve into their smallest form, a sub-microscopic granule. The bacterial "toxins" (which were thought to be entirely free of particles) are not really homogeneous solutions at all, but actually contain the tiny granular stages of the bacteria which broke down to form them. There is another almost identical type of fluid which, when passed through a porcelain filter, carries along with it an ultra-microscopic form of life. This is known as a filterable virus in contradistinction to the many forms of larger viruses, known as cocci and bacilli, which do not pass through fine filters. These tiny granular forms of bacteria which pass through a filter may reintegrate or grow up to form again microscopic bacteria, once the environment is favorable for such response.

[...]They even note that the nervous system must first be injured, before the disease can develop. The environmentally perverted forms of the bionts, whether virus, bacteria, or molds, have their varied size, varied form, and varied function dependent upon their abnormal environment. If the environment is "normalized," they can be reformed and will take on the characteristics of normal granules. In the human body this reformation is a "re-education" process supervised by a normal nervous system. Remember that even these normal granules, the cell and body fluid chemists, have varied sizes and varied functions depending upon their environment. It is a wellknown fact that enzymes and hormones circulate in the blood in an inactive form and assume their characteristic function only at the destination where "expectant" cells await specific "supplies." The potential local need will provide that particular stimulus which is adequate to activate the hormone or enzyme in the characteristic fashion. The type of reaction depends definitely upon the environment.

There are many examples, but the simplest one is this: Adrenalin has no effect on the clotting time of shed blood. However, when injected into the blood stream, it acts as a specific nerve stimulus, and a reflex is activated which appreciably shortens the clotting time. Thus the adrenalin is active only at its destination, and its function is utterly dependent upon the nervous system. Zondek says, "Apparently the hormones circulate in the blood in an inactive form; not until they reach the organs of their destination, to which , they are attracted by special electric affinities, are they activated and is the intensity of their action adjusted to the right pitch. In no circumstances can hormonal influence be conceived to be constant. It is variable, depending in the highest degree upon the character of the medium in which it acts." It is well known that the pancreatic juices and others are not active within the glands of origin or their ducts, but become active only at their destination in the gut.

Tissot showed definitely that the granules are fundamentally the same in any "normal" environment, but by changes of that environment they can metamorphose into various bacterial forms or toxins thereof. They can revert and become "normal" granules again, having the normal characteristics which the words imply, "normal granules in a normal environment." There is a constant interrelationship and . interdependence between agent and environment.

INFECTION
Assuming that the material just considered under bacteriology is well understood, it is an obvious conclusion that the term "infection" has taken on an entirely new meaning. The mere presence of pathogenic micro-organisms in a pathological animal or human patient does not mean that these pathogens are the first cause of the disease, nor does it mean that they have been initially received by infection from some pre-existing patient with the same disease. The pathology and the pathogens can be and frequently are totally endogenous. We could say that the pathogenic bacteria are in these cases totally spontaneous in that there is no outside source. The word "spontaneous," however, implies that there is no known outside cause, and that the pathological degeneration is automatic. That would be a fatalistic conclusion. Since there is a known external cause, adverse environmental factors resulting in various types of nerve trauma, we should use the word endogenous. Endogenous means that the situation, here a pathology with pathogens, began materially within the nervous system of the animals, and not as an infection. This endogenous pathology raises a serious question as to the fitness of the words "infection" and "infectious." Several of the so-called infectious diseases are totally endogenous every time and should, therefore, be classed as degenerative diseases, even though pathogenic micro-organisms are usually found as endproducts of the degenerative pathology.

Many other so-called infectious diseases occur only occasionally as totally endogenous processes. This group usually occurs according to the following second pattern: First there is a definite cellular degeneration, as in the beginning of the totally endogenous pathology. The cellular debris metamorphoses into various virus and bacterial forms. At this transition phase there can be a specific nervous guidance in the form of pathogenic reflexes, initiated in this case by a specific antigen. Hence if the patient, already half sick, contacts another patient with an abundance of specific pathogens, there can be an infection in which the pathogens from the outside source act as a specific antigen--a specific nerve stimulus. This antigenic nerve stimulus will modify the already abnormal reflexes to become specific pathogenic reflexes. The pathogenic reflexes in turn influence the pre-existing degeneration of tissue so that the bionts metamorphose to become pathogenic micro-organisms similar to or indistinguishable from the antigen. This type of pathology, therefore, has a totally endogenous beginning modified by an exogenous process. The end result of this mixed etiology may be indistinguishable from the end result of a totally endogenous etiology. Anterior poliomyelitis is a classic example of a disease which can be either endogenous or mixed. The revolutionary fact is that all these diseases, either totally endogenous or mixed endo-exogenous have totally endogenous beginnings, which means that no disease can be called wholly infectious. Further details of this subject are found under "Cellular Pathology." The practical significance, however, is continued here under "Resistance."

RESISTANCE
Speransky has shown that regardless of "health," an infectious process is very readily inflicted in the laboratory in the presence of what is discussed later in this book as "Double Trouble." This double trouble is the double etiology just considered under "Infection," wherein there must be two distinct traumata to the nervous system in order to establish a pathology. Both may be non-specific traumata resulting in a totally endogenous disease, or one may be non-specific and the other a specific antigenic nerve trauma resulting in the mixed endo-exogenous disease process. At times this first trauma, this "lowered resistance," is established only an instant before a bacterial antigen is added to become the second injury of the "double trouble" and the specific nerve stimulus which differentiates the final symptoms.

A classic example is an inoculation. The needle puncture is obviously a nerve trauma which affects the entire nervous system. The second and specific insult to the nervous system is the antigen. There is no immunity against such an experience. Vaccinia is inflicted in 100% of attempts--barring technical error. The problem is very much confused by the vague terms, "health" and "resistance." Of course, mucous and serous membranes or skin may be depleted, enervated, or abraded, in which case infection may readily occur in the presence of a pathogenic agent, which in this case acts as the second nerve trauma--the specific exogenous antigen. This accounts for the exogenous, non-laboratory disease, usually called infectious or contagious. Is the endogenous disease a true "infection"? No, in that there is no antigen from an outside source. The pathogenic agents here are only incidental end products of the endogenous pathology. "A. G. Molotkov has already accumulated a large amount of material on the treatment of tuberculous ulcers of the tongue by neurotomy of n. glossopharyngeus. A case stands out especially clearly where an extensive and dirty ulcer of the tongue rapidly healed and became covered with epithelium, while isolated tubercles remained visible in the depths of the tissue. For some reason, these tubercles ceased producing additional reactions. Biopsy showed the presence in them of typical tissue elements and microbes which subsequently only gradually disappear. First, the inflammation came to an end, and only after this came the liquidation of the 'causes' which had produced it." (Speransky, p. 255)

Tissot showed endless examples of this phenomenon. There seem to be at least four distinct categories for consideration: a) The best known phenomenon in which an observed double experience occurs to cause a pathology--as in a dog bite, mosquito bite, vaccination, or exposure to a sick patient by one who is definitely run down and is already half sick. In this class there is the double nerve trauma which makes the pathology an endo-exogenous disease. b) The Speransky phenomenon, wherein a recognized double nerve trauma is inflicted, both traumata being non-specific in character--no specific exogenous antigen. This was exemplified by causing staphylococcic kidney abscesses with the double trauma of laparotomy and a drop of formalin on an ovary, or by causing typical tubercles with similar double non-specific traumata. This is again the mixed, endo-exogenous type. c) The Béchamp-Tissot phenomenon, wherein the process is totally endogenous and intracellular. Here again there is no "invasion." In addition to the many examples recorded by both Béchamp and Tissot, the classic experiment of Servel of producing "spontaneous" bacteria (quoted under "asepsis" with "Pasteurian Dogmas") belongs here. The "spontaneous" cases of anterior poliomyelitis "generally known but unexplained" (Cecil) are quite typical of this process of definite degeneration. In this type of pathology part or all of the double nerve trauma may be unrecognized, but it is definitely a case of a totally endogenous process. The fact that several of the so-called "infectious" diseases are often in this classification throws further light on the term "infection." d) The most common phenomenon of unrecognized first trauma and recognized second trauma. The unrecognized portion may be nose picking, violent sneezing or coughing, or tissue depletion as in vitamin deficiency, which degrades the skin or mucosa so that it just about disintegrates all by itself and is thus susceptible to exogenous agents. Here there is a definite invasion and infection. This phenomenon is again a case of mixed endo-exogenous pathology.

Resistance now becomes a little clearer when we realize that there must be a double nerve trauma before the pathology develops. It is not difficult to see how subluxations so often fit into this picture as the initial nerve trauma which "lowers the resistance" and allows the second trauma to have more immediate effect as the final differentiation of the degeneration. Suppose that a patient does have a subluxation which allows an antigen to initiate an endo-exogenous "infection." In the chart, "The Biont Cycle" under "Cellular Pathology," you will see very readily how normalization of the original subluxation may sufficiently stabilize the nervous system that it is able to "abort" the case by a reclamation of the perverted bionts and speed a rapid recovery of health. In the final analysis the topic of resistance is one of nervous integrity. If the reflexes are perverted and allowed to remain abnormal, then it takes only a single additional trauma to begin a pathology. If the reflexes are maintained at their normal integrity, then it will take "double trouble" to start a pathology. Again that brings us to the word "health," which can be best defined as a state of mechanical, chemical, and mental balance characterized by excellent adaptation to the environment. There are other aspects of this subject which require further elaboration in succeeding pages.

PATHOLOGY (GENERAL)
As the environment of the cell changes, the intracellular activity also changes. Of course there are degrees of change and degrees of response. As long as the basic living units, the bionts, are in harmony with their environment, all is well and the state of health prevails. If the environment becomes too severe and the bionts cannot be well adapted to a harmonious condition, then a state of disease begins and the bionts change. Since they cannot continue living in discord, they become perverted and assume modified forms. As the basic units are perverted, so the entire organism built of myriads of bionts becomes degenerate. The many forms of this degeneration are called disease and have many descriptive names. If an environmental change is sufficiently drastic, the very form and function of the intracellular bionts will change radically, and the cell will decompose. Some types of cell can never be regenerated, if the degree of damage has been sufficiently great. The term environment includes nutrition and oxygen, drainage, temperature, injurious agents, and anything else which in any way influences cellular well-being. Since each cell has a direct nerve supply (a few have indirect nerve supplies), the nervous system is an informer of distant environmental changes. Actually this is one of the most important parts of cellular environment. Without this intact nervous system only the most primitive form of physiology can exist. Even a starfish has a well developed nervous system. (This matter is discussed more thoroughly under "Special Pathology" and under "Neurology".) One particularly fascinating and appropriate subject is that of phagocytosis). So long as this mold stage endures, the relative immunity persists. We shall have occasion to return to this subject in connection with acquired immunity. It is, however, something which can and does occasionally misfire, as noted under
Anaphylaxis.

Eventually the "cells" are fragmented to normal microzymas, unless a more specific product, such as connective tissue fibers, is required, in which case the "cell" takes on the characteristics of a fibroblast, actually becomes one, and builds the fibers. For more specific data read through the section Platelets and
Coagulation.

CARRIER
If what has been said under Recovery is recalled, then the carrier problem will be clarified. Pathogenic organisms may continue to exist in the "recovered" person. The erstwhile patient has reached a new "normal" by compromise between the host and the micro-organism amounting to mutual tolerance between them. It is a case of adaptation permitting them to live quite happily together for a while. Usually the organisms are modified and reformed to become the normal granules, although occasionally they retain their pathogenic characteristics. A homely illustration is provided by shoes. In this country we are accustomed to wearing shoes, and this practice has become normal for us. In Australia the aborigines are barefooted and have tough feet. If one of them were fitted with shoes, he would be temporarily crippled and worthless in his society. Probably he would throw them away, but he might possibly get used to them and go on wearing them until he became agile on his feet and could again take his place in society. He would then have become a carrier of shoes. He would get along well with them, but if he were to put shoes on another native, then the second person would be crippled. This is because other persons in that society are not adapted to this new condition. Depending on their adaptability they may or may not suffer. So the carrier is an example of an unusual adaptation. For all purposes he is like other folks, but he is carrying something that if forced on another person would possibly cause suffering.

CELLULAR PATHOLOGY
Cellular pathology here means something quite different from Virchow's term. Virchow maintained that the cell is the ultimate unit of life. Béchamp and Tissot showed that the cell is not ultimate but that the cell is made up of even more primitive units. Tissot showed that either the stroma or the parenchyma of the cell can become diseased: Thus there are two fundamental types of disease process, according to Tissot, as already explained in the section on Pathology. The intracellular aberration of the two subcellular components, the bionts, is a response to abnormal environment and assumes several interesting forms. Both Béchamp and Tissot demonstrated that under certain conditions the germ is a product, a result, an effect of the disease process: The disease comes first, then the germ from the tissues--a metamorphosis. There need be no "invasion" and no "migration." Under certain conditions the "infection" is exclusively an endogenous process.

The most accurate presentation of this aspect of a complicated biological phenomenon has been achieved by Speransky, but both Speransky and Béchamp must be understood in order to grasp the full significance and the detail of this highly and vitally important phenomenon in its totality. On the other hand, the infection, which always begins as an endogenous, degenerative process (the socalled lowered resistance) may be secondarily exogenous. The lowered resistance is established by a nerve trauma at times occurring shortly before an antigen is added to become the second injury of the "double trouble." A classic example is an inoculation. [...] Other series of experiments performed by Speransky and by Tissot showed that once the initial degenerative process has started in the body and disease is initiated, it can be further guided by specific nerve stimuli in the form of bacterial inoculation, as antigens (or similar use of their toxins), with the result that the symptoms of the disease are finally altered to fit a pattern typical of that antigenic stimulus. Vaccinia is one of the many instances of exogenous disease. [...]

Since there are only the two subcellular bionts, there are, as might be expected, two forms of cellular "degeneration." 1. The dumb-bell (haltère) or knobbed stick form (structural biont), when perverted, metamorphoses into tubercle bacillus, mycobacterium leprae, and the organisms found in cancerous growths. 2. The granules (microzymas of Béchamp), fibrinferment or micrococcic forms of B. coli (Tissot), when perverted, metamorphose into any of the various cocci, the enteric group of bacilli, the various clostridiae (tetanus and gangrene), the various Corynebacteria and many others. Both forms of bionts can and do go through a cycle, parts of which are associated with the following two major phases of disease:

A. Acute (bacterial) phase, in which there are generally symptoms of a recognizable disease in a more or less acute form. There is a fine distinction of terminology here which might be confusing, because many of the diseases progress into a "chronic" stage as far as symptoms are concerned, despite the continued presence of an abundance of bacteria. Tissot uses the terms acute and chronic to designate the developmental stage in the cycle of the bionts rather than to characterize the frequently confusing clinical symptoms of the patient. The forms in the biont cycle can be demonstrated in vivo. Bear in mind that Tissot is using "acute" and "chronic" with relation to phases of development of the bionts and not to the clinical symptoms of an incidental host.

B. Chronic (mycelial) phase, in which there is generally a minimum of clinical symptoms, but in which the bionts have always progressed in their developmental cycle to the vegetable, mold phase. In this phase the perverted bionts of the acute phase have now clumped into germinal centers. Newly introduced bacteria clump rapidly into these germinal centers, giving the appearance of phagocytosis. Hence there are few free bacteria to be found. Remember that Tissot uses the term "chronic" with reference to the bionts themselves, which can be demonstrated in vitro without a host and without clinical symptoms. Thus it happens that acute bacterial forms are found in some so-called chronic diseases. Actually when these so-called chronic diseases reach the chronic stage, the bacteria clump into the germinal centers of molds, and clinical symptoms almost completely disappear.

THE BIONT CYCLE
The phases "acute" and "chronic" are only transitional high spots in a cyclical development of bionts. This cycle, which is discussed under Bacteriology, is the same for all the various end-products of pathology and their attendant bacterial byproducts. Although there are an infinite number of fine distinctions in these end



results (since no two sets of environmental circumstances are identical) all pathology and all co-existent bacteriology come within the one cycle. With the aid of the accompanying diagrams of the biont cycle we have a simple graphic basis for understanding the interrelationship between the various phases of this cycle. Tissot published a wealth of material to illustrate the abnormal cycle (sketched here in an attempt to help us properly to orient ourselves in bacteriology). Since it is obvious that bacteria are only a stage in the cycle, we see that, unless the entire picture is realized and understood, bacteriology can become a frustrated and a frustrating science. All bacteriologists know that it is difficult to maintain a "fixed" species, and that it can be done only under rigid artificial conditions. [...]



At this point we should mention the Notre Dame experiments on "aseptic" animals. If we keep the biont cycle clearly in mind, these experiments should present no problem. For years bacteriologists have found that animals delivered aseptically by Cesarian section, kept in aseptic cages, and given sterile food and water do not live more than a few days. This made it apparent that contamination by exogenous bacteria is absolutely essential to their lives. For a number of years, however, there has been an experiment going on at Notre Dame University in which laboratory animals have been kept alive for several generations without any exogenous bacterial contamination. Autopsies show that the lymphatic tissue in these animals is almost non-existent. Moreover, the post mortem decay of specimens is delayed. In view of Tissot's material and his insistence on the "bacterial nature" of all living beings, we can see that, so long as the animals remain healthy, the normal bionts are present and active throughout their bodies and are able to carry on the normal physiology without difficulty. If, after an animal is killed, the specimen is slow to decay, that is only what we should expect, in that there is only a meager amount of degenerate material present at that time. If the specimen is maintained under optimum conditions--still aseptic--it does, nevertheless, definitely decay after a time, forming "spontaneous" bacteria. Actually then, these experiments are just one more substantiation of Tissot's work.

ETIOLOGY
The intracellular biont which has undergone a specific metamorphosis (in situ) becomes a free agent when its cell has decomposed. Coming in contact with a new environment, under certain circumstances and conditions this organism (or its product) is able to initiate the same type of process with which it was itself recently associated and thus induce an identical degeneration perverting other bionts. Thus the first modified biont acts as a "blueprint" pattern for the others to follow. The process is like the addition of one rotten apple to a barrel of good ones. Bacteriologists in general have agreed that the virus multiplies in this way, not by reproduction, but by inducing degenerating cellular components to follow its pattern and become more virus. Thus the modified biont acts as a pattern and induces in other bionts which it is now able to influence the same type of metamorphosis which it has recently experienced. Tissot has concluded after much study and evaluation of the pneumococci that, "Since pneumococci are NOT found in the alveoli during the initial stages of the disease, but only well after the fever is under way, the pneumococci must be NOT the cause but the consequence of the disease. The studies of chilling in relation to pneumonia made by Wurtz are good. Chilling of the thoracic wall (without bacteria) or trauma to the wall--rib fracture--easily causes pneumonia as a result of severe vasomotor changes in the alveoli. The traumatic origin alone is sufficient proof of the lack of specificity of pneumococci. I conclude that it is borne spontaneously (more properly, endogenously--R.W.) within man's body." (Vol. III, pp. 239, 240)

Etiology must include all the known causes of disease. As was mentioned before, these include any environmental circumstance to which the organism fails to become adapted. Severe chilling, starvation, crushing injuries, burns, contact with violent poisons, psychic trauma, or any other harmful agents can be factors in the cause of disease. In order properly to evaluate the role of bacteria in this sense we must first study Neurology and Double Trouble. Then you can draw your own conclusions in the light of the evidence presented.

It has been asked, "Where do the bacteria go, when the person gets well?" They pass into clumps as leukocytes, then to the mold stage, and finally are fragmented into re-formed, normal healthy granules which are of constant use in all normal tissue. Studies of Speransky, Kuntz, Pottenger, and many others who are in position to know, reveal that the environment within the body is utterly dependent upon the nervous system. Many experiments show that the various immune reactions, agglutination, and similar phenomena are all produced through the mediation of the nervous system. Speransky has shown numerous histological experiments conclusively demonstrating that the tissues are sick first. There is degeneration through nervous incoordination and the various bacterial forms are the result of the disease, not the cause of it. The bacteria can be collected from other degenerate patients, and may be followed by pathological phenomena, but they act only as "blueprint patterns," as specific nerve stimuli which modify an already degenerate or perverted reflex. Thus the nervous system maintains a position of supremacy. Its integrity is a sine qua non for health. The disease starts in the nervous system, and recovery starts in the nervous system. The bacteria are bystanders, innocent for the most part, and they disappear after the patient has started to recover. This disappearance is by "re-education" of the little rascals and their reformation into normal, healthy, primal units to be used as parts of normal, healthy tissues.

HEMATOPOIESIS: THE RED BLOOD CORPUSCLE
The red blood corpuscle is formed in the red marrow and in other places in the manner mentioned under the discussion of mitosis. This process has repeatedly been demonstrated to be definitely under the control of the autonomic nervous system. After about three weeks of hard work the red blood cells are decomposed in the blood stream by their own intracellular bionts. This is a normal, not a pathological decomposition. Hence, as the cell disintegrates, the bionts are liberated in a normal healthy form. Iron is set free in the process and quickly reclaimed. The bionts are now free healthy individuals. Both Béchamp and Tissot demonstrated their abundant presence in the blood. Free bionts may now enter into the composition of other cells, or platelets, or simply function as a relatively simple but vitally essential constituent of the normal blood plasma.

HEMATOPOIESIS: THE WHITE BLOOD CORPUSCLE
Tissot has demonstrated that leukocytes (the mononuclear) are not normally formed in fixed locations, but are "spun" out of the clumping of free microzymas and germs in the circulating blood. Health and disease are interpenetrating processes. The greater the shift from health in the direction of disease, the greater the decomposition of white blood cells, for example, and the greater the number of more or less "perverted" free microzymas or germs. Leukocytes are composed of "scrapped" material and are discarded as pus, in feces, and in other ways.


PLATELETS AND COAGULATION
Platelets are composed of groups of microzymas. These microzymas are the normal healthy granules called by Tissot fibrin ferment or micrococci forms of B. coli. Being in the form of small groups and therefore having a diminished exposed surface, their activity is temporarily limited. If all the free granules were separated as single individuals, the entire blood stream would be suddenly coagulated. From this massive coagulation the granules would "spontaneously" develop areolar tissue. We mentioned earlier, under Specialization, the coagulation of blood by the precipitation of fibrin and with it the granules, all as a function of the granules. Tissot showed that connective tissues are developed directly from the granules. One experiment described was that of taking a drop of dog blood, sealing it in a collodion capsule and implanting it into the dog's peritoneum. After eight days, examination showed that the plasma granules (free granules and small clumps of granules called platelets) had clumped and fused to form the leukocytes--germinal centers--which then grew a heavy mesh of fibers. At this stage the leukocytes are identical (many of them) with the fibroblasts, which give rise first to areolar tissue and ultimately to scar tissue. Others of the leukocytes are in the form of plasma cells, mast cells, and histiocytes, which at their full development generate many new granules. This replaces the continual loss through feces, urine, perspiration and skin friction. This recalls to mind the statement by pathologists that a sterile clean wound without any bacteria, leukocytes, or clot will not heal. Introduction of a few staphylococci will start the healing process, because in such an environment the staphylococci revert to the normal granule form and function; they multiply and fuse to form leukocytes and fibroblasts, which in turn construct the new tissue. (See Boyd's Pathology, 3rd ed. p. 132 or 5th ed. p. 125--R.W.) This is a clear answer to the puzzled pathologists who still wonder how so many leukocytes and fibroblasts get on location as fast as they do. Also it clearly answers the old question as to where the histiocytes originate, and why they appear in such profusion after injuries.

PHAGOCYTOSIS
[...]In discussing disease processes in general, there are two stages: an acute bacterial stage and a chronic mold stage. Intrinsic cellular decomposition is accomplished by the intracellular bionts. Upon adequate stimulus they metamorphose into a bacterial form, the specificity of which is determined by the sum total of environmental factors. These early changes constitute the acute phase of disease. Under continued environmental stimulus, still slightly abnormal as found in the usual "clinical" case, the free bionts clump. Then the clumps of bionts and incidental bacteria begin to sprout mycelia. This is the chronic stage, in which the granules are sufficiently modified to become compatible with the body. Although Tissot has not observed and hence not speculated on the "aborted" cases, it is undoubtedly true that through a rapid complete normalization of the nervous environment, either the acute stage with bacteria or the "prebacterial" stage can clear up rapidly by bacterial fragmentation and subsequent normalization of the individual modified granules. Hence the perverted forms can take either of the two routes of normalization, the complete abnormal cycle or a by-pass through the clump and mold phases, depending upon the nervous environment. Tissot has, however, put great stress on the bacterial "maturation" through the mold stage. The overall picture, of which this phagocytosis and leukopoiesis are only a small part, has already been clearly depicted under The Biont Cycle.

NEUROLOGY
The fact that modified bionts, similar to those which have initiated "infection" on the exterior of the body, appear internally--and even suddenly within remote, centrally situated nerve cells--indicates that the nervous system is competent to transmit a quality of excitation which will cause intracellular bionts to undergo a metamorphosis into a form similar to that of the irritant, as described in the section entitled Cellular Pathology. Speransky (p. 261) reports the definite production of the tuberculous pathology complete with the bacilli in the kidneys in every case in which the specific nerve stimulus in the form of bacilli has been applied to the parenchyma of the testicle, in spite of the lack of communication between the two areas except in the form of nervous stimuli. He also cites (p. 262) experiments in which typical bacteria were developed in the kidneys exclusively through nervous stimuli by applying a drop of formalin to an ovary. Even the typical organisms of syphilis were developed in a similar bizarre manner. (p. 274)

If we were limited to developing bacteria endogenously by perverting the nervous system, we would be without practical application, but the clinical results of chiropractic over the years have shown the reversal of the process to be of very general occurrence, happening in thousands of persons daily; that is, normalizing the innervation is followed by disappearance of the bacteria. Speransky has added his results to these by handling cases of quinine-resistant malaria with a form of general nerve massage, and in ten out of eleven cases has obtained complete clinical recovery with prompt and complete disappearance and non-recurrence of the parasites. In view of these examples of a commonplace occurrence we must conclude that a microorganism is primarily a specific nerve stimulus which can only slightly modify an already perverted nervous system. If, on the other hand, the nervous system is in excellent condition with good adaptability, the organisms (although acting as stimuli, it is true) are either modified by their nervous environment and undergo metamorphosis into the normal granules, or else they are completely ejected from the body. If, however, the nervous system is crippled and consequently has poor adaptability, then it is already in a state of degeneration, the reflexes are not normal, and the added specific stimulus of the microorganisms may sufficiently modify the reflexes through spatial and temporal summation to alter the symptom pattern and bring about a clinical picture of disease. In this instance, by breaking up the consequent pathogenic reflexes and re-establishing the normal reflexes, the body is able to regain its state of harmony with its environment, and health results.

The few drugs that are at all effective in helping recover health are simply specific nerve stimuli that set up counter-reflexes and help normalize the nervous function. Many methods have been used. The few antitoxins that are effective act only as specific nerve stimuli. Speransky showed that novocaine injections were much better than specific antitoxins, (p. 296) Still he discouraged even the novocaine blockade, because it blocked the normal reflexes as well as the abnormal ones. The adverse experience which initiates pathology is always through the nervous system. To demonstrate this some rabbits were given lethal doses of cyanide salts. One group was first given a general anesthesia to cancel out the possibility of setting up pathogenic reflexes. Controls were given the same dosage of poison. The controls died suddenly and characteristically, while the other animals with their sensory nerves blocked and the autonomic system working efficiently suffered no ill effects. Their bodies simply eliminated the poisons through the usual channels while their sensory nerves were blocked, and upon awakening there was no change in their behavior, the reason being simply that the specific stimuli were unable to initiate the pathogenic reflexes. A similar series of experiments consisted in freezing guinea pigs. When the freezing started pathogenic reflexes, there was pathology as a result, but the anesthetized animals were unaffected. These violent adverse experiences, having their effect ONLY through the nervous system, should make it adequately clear that minor adversities are brought about likewise through the nervous system.

DOUBLE TROUBLE
On the basis of what has been said under Neurology, it is evident that among the conditions required for the initiation of infection (that is, actual infection of exogenous origin), two things are absolutely necessary: a certain kind of nerve trauma plus a specific infectious agent. This "double trouble" is the sine qua non for the initiation of infection. Remember, however, that identical pathology with identical bacteria can and does develop without the "invasion" of a pre-existing germ. It develops intrinsically and only by aberration of the normal nervous reflexes. This is of utmost significance, for it shows the Nervous Supremacy over all physiological and pathological processes. The bacteria then are not primary causes at all. They often act as patterns which influence the degenerating cellular debris to metamorphose into more bacteria, thus slightly altering the final symptom complex. Influenza and anterior poliomyelitis provide fine examples. They are halfbrothers. Occasionally polio is "spontaneous," with no history of prior contact with the virus. Then it is totally endogenous. More often it is the final perversion of a case of influenza. The patient is first run down, his tissues already degenerating and manifesting abnormal reflex patterns which gradually take on the picture of influenza. To that is added the specific nerve stimulus of the polio virus, which conditions the pathogenic reflexes further and causes finally a typical case of poliomyelitis.

ANIMAL-VEGETABLE RELATIONSHIP
Studies of typical animal tissue preparations which included the various nerve endings in striated muscles, connective tissue stroma, myelinated nerves, and other tissues convinced Tissot that cultures of pure molds elaborate identical structures. The Ranvier's nodes, Lantermann's clefts, neurolemma nuclei, axons with collateral branches, motor end-plates, spiral endings, and other animal structures all showed up in these vegetable cultures. They were not in profusion, because they occurred at random and were not, coordinated as in the body. Since Tissot was a real scientist, he reported what he saw, and did not speculate on the ultimate nature of the coordination, but he noted that in a living normal body there is a definite coordination which is not present in laboratory preparations. Neither did he speculate on the internal environmental factors of the body. One of the questions which he considered was that of the actual relationship between animal and vegetable tissues. Since the tissue extracts containing the elemental granules taken from either animal or vegetable cells develop identical structures, is it not possible that animals are groups of perfectly adapted, symbiotic vegetables? Are we then modified vegetables? He puts that as a basic question in biology. He states definitely that the primal units of life, the stick "dumb-bell" units and the granules, are identical in both animal and vegetable cells and grow identical molds when cultured. His work is replete with references to typical bacterial forms and typical vegetable mold forms developed by direct metamorphosis from aseptic animal tissue biopsies, and again he arrives at the conclusion that there is only one disease--degeneration.

IMMUNITY (NATURALLY ACQUIRED) .
The immunity theory is so full of holes that it looks like Swiss cheese. One doctor was still enthused about it after his daughter died of a third attack of scarlet fever. Based on the current statistics a mathematician, Vogt, showed that a person who has once had smallpox is sixty-three per cent more likely to get it again in a subsequent epidemic than a person who has never had it. Statistics cited later in this book show that, after the use of inoculations against various diseases, not only is the number of cases increased, but a higher percentage of persons die from them: The mortality rate is increased by inoculations.

The reasons are as follows: During the acute bacterial stage of a disease the incoordinated bionts have been sufficiently perverted to become typical bacteria, which at that stage act as specific nerve stimuli and set up reflexly the usual symptoms of the condition. Gradually they clump and fuse into the leukocytes. As they all fuse, the bacteria decrease, while the leukocytes increase in number. At a certain developmental stage the leukocytes appear to "degenerate" into basket cells and then sprout into typical molds, which are discounted in laboratories as contaminants. The molds then develop many filaments which break off usually into fragments, the rehabilitated normal granules. If the normal process is upset at this point, they may be renegades, breaking off as typical bacteria. It is well known that there are a certain number of bacteria in any healthy blood stream, but their presence has never been adequately explained. Immunity is, therefore, relative and acquired, when it is of this type. Its actual mechanism is that of rapid flocculation of newly introduccd microorganisms of the same type. Thus they do not linger in the system in their bacterial form to act as abnormal specific nerve stimuli and reflexly set up the typical symptom pattern, but rather are hurried through this acute bacterial stage too fast for any symptoms to develop and incorporated into the pre-existing germinal centers of the mold stage, the leukocytes. Thus Tissot says (p. 332) "Actual immunity against disease does NOT exist. It is only relative." (The acute stage is by-passed.) The period of time during which the mold stage of a particular type of organism does exist in the system is the time during which there is immunity to the corresponding disease. If this process of rapid resolution goes wrong (as it does occasionally) there is anaphylactic shock, which is the result of a few clumps large enough to cause capillary blockade and shock.[...] As soon as the mold stage is completed and all the filaments fragmented into the rehabilitated normal granules, then there is no speeding through the acute process, and not only can the acute disease develop again, but it is more likely to develop than in a person who never has had the disease. This predisposition has been shown several times to be statistically true and is easily explained, if one understands the neurobiotaxis and facilitation involved in any reflex action, whether physiological or pathological. It is simply that once the nervous system has been conditioned to perverted reflexes, a developed habit pattern exists which it is easier to repeat than it is to initiate a new pattern. The complete re-educational reformation by which these perverted forms are rehabilitated by a normal environment (nervous--R.W.) to return to their normal healthy forms takes a varying length of time ranging from a few weeks to about seventy-five years.

During this reformation period of passage through the mold stage, fragmentation of filaments into granules, and their final incorporation into normal tissue cells, there is a period of relative immunity. This "acquired immunity" then means that any perverted granules in bacterial or sub-bacterial form which are spread from another degenerate (sick) person will be transformed very rapidly into the chronic mold stage so that the acute stage will be partly or entirely skipped. The bacteria do not remain in bacterial form with the capacity to act as specific nerve stimuli. When this reformation is complete and there are no more germinal centers or mold stages of this particular type of mold, then the "acquired immunity" is over, and the person is again normal and healthy. By again degenerating and becoming sick he can have the acute bacterial stage of the disease reproduce the clinical picture once more. This type of relative immunity is specific. [...]

IMMUNITY (NATURAL)
There is a natural indifference to many agents. A healthy person is naturally immune, because there are no perverted granules of cellular debris to follow the example of a foreign agent and become bacteria. If this were not true, then everyone would be affected in an epidemic, instead of the usual one per cent. That is the reason wild animals are immune to practically all the diseases of mankind, but when they are placed in captivity, with their body flexibility and their natural diet limited, they begin to fall prey to every disease of mankind. Again the entire problem is reducible to only one disease--even including the diseases of subhuman species--the disease of degeneration. [...]

IMMUNITY (ARTIFICIAL)
If the material under the heading of Biology has been clear, it will be apparent that artificial immunization is not a rational practice. It was shown by Béchamp and confirmed by Tissot that the biological differences in all animal species are sufficiently great to invalidate the theories of immunology. The additional feature of the delicately balanced, highly-organized body on which the practice of artificial immunity is inflicted, indicates a wide range of potential damage. Artificial immunity is both worthless and injurious, says Tissot. First, there is a vast difference between test tube phenomena and reactions in a living body. Second, a standard reaction in a horse, guinea pig or rabbit is absolutely different from the corresponding reaction in man. Third, since there are no two human beings who are the same, no two persons can have identical reactions to similar environmental changes (including inoculations). Fourth, the introduction of any product of one living organism into another organism, even of the same species, is the introduction of foreign material and always causes some reaction, frequently producing very dire results. The close ultimate similarity among pathogenic agents has been stressed herein. But now the converse feature (difference) must be discussed. Although it is possible to cause diphtheria through the agent taken from a cereal culture, it is not rational to attempt to immunize with horse serum, because of the great biological differences between man and horse. The horse serum then becomes injurious to man, no matter how it is modified. It would not be injurious to re-inject it into the same horse, but that would be pointless. Recall that "acquired immunity" is the reformation stage during which bacteria are passing through the mold phase. At this time any newly injected bacteria are speeded through the clumping into the mold stage, almost skipping the acute phase. Anaphylactic shock is the extreme case of this mechanism. Here a sensitization. is produced by the first injection, which causes a clumping of the injected granules into germinal centers. The second injection adds bulk to these clumps so rapidly that the clumps, now greatly enlarged by newly infected granules, cause a capillary blockade with the typical symptoms of shock.

INOCULATION
There are two points to be kept in mind whenever inoculation is considered. First, it is not possible to limit the technical procedure to an isolated feature: one cannot avoid inflicting a trauma at the time of inoculation. (See section on Double Trouble.) Again, it is not possible to isolate the result of the procedure: As Herbert Spencer pointed out, when you change the body in relation to one disease, you change it in relation to all. Statistics and history show that the change is for the worse.

ALLERGY AND ANAPHYLAXIS
Both allergy and anaphylaxis are caused by body response to specific agents. Tissot wrote, "Lambling in Biochemistry Abstract says, 'All diastases act like antigens because animal injections provoke a corresponding antidiastase.' It is not a true antidiastase at all. Each diastase (enzyme) is a form of B. coli micrococcus (biont granules). Thus each foreign diastase is a foreign protein, and the experimental disease develops either as the acute bacterial stage or the chronic mycelian (mold) stage. This agglutination of the bacteria or virus to form germinal centers for the chronic mycelian stage marks the beginning of the sensitized state. Newly injected virus then agglutinates much more rapidly than before to keep pace with the earlier injection. This high-speed clumping (too few and too big granular accumulations) is what blocks the capillaries and induces shock." (p. 258) "The albuminoids play only a passive role in developing the injected antigen and the production of agglutinin." (p. 331) McDonagh made a very similar explanation on the basis of the size of the serum protein particles and the consequent capillary blockade, but he did not pin the tail on the right donkey. Tissot says that the albuminoids are only passive in this show. Inability to regulate the clumping of the antigen is an added risk in any form of inoculation. All inoculations inflict the disease, usually in a chronic stage and for varying lengths of time. Allergy is the same general type of reaction to a specific agent as anaphylaxis, with the difference that in allergy the agent in question does not usually enter the body. Hence it is not a problem of clumping and passing to the chronic stage, but rather a problem of unstable physiological reflexes easily perverted by external stimuli, so that they become actual pathogenic reflexes. It is a problem of nervous adaptability and thus an easy one for chiropractors to solve.

CHEMOTHERAPY
In concluding a thorough analysis of the problem, Tissot writes, "This method of treatment (chemotherapy) is able to be successful in some cases, but unfortunately they are quite rare. Many of the diseases are autogenous and intrinsic (exclusively), and the extrinsic diseases have a bacterial phase which is only one small part of their life cycle; that small portion ONLY is attacked." (P.-295, vol.1) He is speaking here of strict chemotherapy into which the sulfa group, penicillin, and the other "miracle" drugs fall. Of serology with its inoculations and vaccinations he is much more critical. McDonagh, an eminent physician and research expert, states: "In much the same way as we have discarded local manifestations of disease as being disease entities, and now consider them as representing symptoms or end points of disease only, so we now discard the specific action of drugs as playing anything but a very minor part in their activity." He attributes their action to their qualities of altering vegetative nervous system balance. He even demonstrates that the use of glucose and of insulin in treating many things entirely divorced from sugar is based simply upon its effect on the vegetative system. He says also, "Vitamins are not really specific substances, nor the results of vitamin starvations specific entities." Again, their action is only on the vegetative nervous system.

Speransky has gone even further in demonstrating the effects of chemotherapy. "The ancient methods of treatment . . . equally with more recent methods-- subcutaneous injections of foreign substances, radium, x-ray, diathermy, and nerve blockade--all find the explanation of their action in those characteristic changes which the nervous system undergoes on encountering processes of irritation. There is every reason to believe that drugs such as sodium salicylate, quinine, arsenic, mercury, and many others as well, owe their action to the same mechanism." Thus he states that specific drugs are only specific nerve irritants. "Pathology is turning to chemistry because, not having good methods of its own, it hastily seizes on methods which may be good but are foreign to it, without always taking into account the limits of their applicability. This is not the first time that pathology is passing through such a period. Contemporary chemistry can deal only with small things." Voltaire hit the mark when he said, "Doctors put drugs of which they know little into patients of whom they know less, to cure diseases about which they know nothing at all." Oliver Wendell Holmes, a great physician, rightly said, "If all the medicines were poured into the ocean it would be better for mankind but bad for the fish." Speransky wrote, "The medicine of Virchow, Pasteur, and Ehrlich is approaching exhaustion and cannot cope with the contradictions that have arisen." As for the modern "miracle" drugs, one after the other has been withdrawn from the market, as its turn came to pass out of style. Time magazine reported several such exhaustions in connection with a report on penicillin. After a year's research and spending a million dollars, the Carnegie Foundation reported that powdered chalk was just as effective as penicillin in controlling colds, and that it was a lot cheaper. They called penicillin "useless." In 1950, some communities noticed that most of the poliomyelitis cases had followed intensive penicillin therapy. Marked reduction of penicillin usage in 1951 was accompanied by marked reduction in the number and severity of poliomyelitis cases.

[...] Thus, in summary, Tissot has established that the Pasteurian school has fallen into gross error by following four major blunders of Pasteur. First, living animal tissues are not aseptic, but are composed entirely of subcellular primal units which are capable of independent existence. When they become perverted due to faulty environment, they decompose the cell and become bacteria of various forms. This corrects Pasteur's second error of bacterial monomorphism and a third in which Pasteur insisted that putrefaction and all disease processes are caused by the "invasion" of external, inferior germs. This is false. Pasteur drew this erroneous conclusion from the fact that autoclaved media will not spontaneously brew bacteria. This fact really proves only that roast beef, for example, is dead; it does not reveal the characteristics of living cattle. Place upon autoclaved media a bit of tissue fluid or a few living cells, aseptically removed from a healthy, living animal and such tissue or fluid will, under suitable conditions, definitely develop into luxuriant bacterial cultures. Then by modifying the temperature and the fluidity of the media the specimen can be transformed into a mold.

FOUR FALSE DOGMAS OF PASTEUR

1. Panspermism Pasteur held that germs are found everywhere in the air, and that these atmospheric organisms are the cause of fermentation, putrefaction and many of the diseases of mankind.
2. Monomorphism Pasteur held that each type of bacterium is a distinct species; that this species and this alone causes a corresponding specific disease; that there is no transmutation of bacteria-cocci cannot possibly become rods.
3. Asepsis Pasteur held that a normal healthy animal has bacteriologically sterile tissues; that there are no bacteria normally found within the body proper, and that putrefaction is caused exclusively by contamination, the invasion of external germs.
4. Contagion Since Pasteur believed that animal tissues are aseptic, then any disease must be caused by invasion of external germs through direct or indirect contact with a pre-existing case of the disease. There was to him no such thing as an endogenous disease.

Tissot has presented voluminous material in the nature of indisputable evidence that Pasteur was not only absolutely wrong about these four points, but also vicious in the promotion of these falsehoods exclusively for the benefit of Pasteur, his own fame and fortune. We shall consider portions of this evidence point by point.

1. Panspermism.
[...]On pages 244-6 Tissot reports many experiments by various pathologists which show that tetanus and gangrene (with their organisms) are endogenous. Anaërobic blood cultures commonly develop these organisms. On pages 247-8 he shows many reports of the "putrefactive" organisms being entirely endogenous. They even develop within the body before death with severe crises of various poisonings. Streptococci, sareina, M. tetragenus, proteus vulgaris, and nearly always B. coli are found in the viscera during these crises. Other classic experiments performed repeatedly are mentioned under the heading of asepsis, but would be equally appropriate here. The experiments of Pasteur upon which he based this erroneous and seriously misleading conclusion showed only that it is impossible to develop organisms spontaneously in media that are heat-sterilized, and that the organisms found later on that medium come from external contamination, principally from the air. That proves nothing except that boiled beef is no longer living. It shows absolutely nothing about the characteristics of living cattle. Aseptic biopsies in culture consistently yield bacterial forms which are absolutely endogenous. [...]

2. Monomorphism.
The present-day bacteriologists being financially supported by the Pasteurian school must uphold the political front, but they all admit that there are truly no fixed species except when held under rigid artificial laboratory environment, and even there the bacteria will change both form and function quite readily. It is difficult to maintain fixed "typical" cultures. They find even the germinal centers and filaments of the mold phase of the bacteria quite commonly as "contaminants" in old cultures. These are usually Aspergillus or Penicillium. Tissot writes (p. 156), "(a) Each bacterial species is only one provisional form of basic living material; (b) each one can be modified and changed severely by environmental changes; (c) constant types of these species can be changed and are only those held under rigid control; (d) these pathogens have both bacterial and hyphomycetic (mold) forms, and generally the hyphomycete is the original form, which in the infected organism gives rise to the secondary bacterial forms." "General Conclusions (p. 161): (a) Polymorphism is one of the principal properties of living matter; it is adaptability, (b) Bacteria transform through these stages: micrococci (granules and filterable forms), bacilli, mycelian web, hyphomycete, organized fungus, (c) These forms do not exist in normal tissues, but only in perverted tissues as either endogenous or exogenous 'guests.' They are parasites at the 'invitation' of the host." Actually to anyone who knows much about bacteriology there is no such thing as argument on this matter. Pasteur's errors are being perpetuated by scientists who are fully aware of the damage he inflicted on the human and animal world.

3. Asepsis.
Laboratory experiments demonstrating endogenous bacteria are classic, (p. 169) "A dog is sacrificed by femoral hemorrhage; the abdomen opened, the liver and kidneys ligatured and removed aseptically; then suspended in a one per cent solution of chromic acid (a bactericide) and kept at 15 to 20 degrees C-- just normal laboratory temperature. After five days microscopic examination will show the periphery to be perfectly sterile, no bacteria and only the normal microzymic granules; the center by contrast is filled with bacteria which are active. As soon as they hit the chromic acid they stop. This experiment was a classic done by Servel in 1874 and vigorously denied by Pasteur. Altmann, Béchamp, and many others repeated these experiments and refuted Pasteur." These endogenous bacteria are developed by perversion of the normal tissue granules. Since the normal granules can be transformed into bacteria quite easily in any laboratory, Tissot uses a rather questionable term in stating that the normal granules are of bacterial form. Actually he is correct, but the term has a prejudicial meaning to most persons. Tissot concludes this question of asepsis on p. 11: "The climactic stroke that closes the indictment of Pasteurism is the demonstration of the fibrin ferment (normal granules) and its relation to B. coli. By obstinately insisting on the asepsis of living beings, which are wholly constituted by the haltère unit (the structural stick) of bacterial nature and of B. coli (in its various subforms as normal granules), Pasteur made the worst error in biological sciences of which I know. Consequently the Pasteurian school has, by supporting these blunders, blocked the discovery of (a) the bacterial nature of living beings, (b) the original source of B. coli and its role in living beings, (c) the real nature and original form of endogenous viruses (often of vegetable origin), (d) the existence of endogenous, spontaneous virus and bacteria, (e) the identity between all the cocci, B. lactis aërogenes, Vibrio septic, Clostridium tetani, and others, (f) the bacterial nature of enzymes and ferments. These blunders have appreciably blocked scientific progress and perverted bacteriology. The insistence on asepsis in living beings, the ignorance of B. coli and its role, and the blaming of Koch's bacillus for tuberculosis are responsible for antibacterial chemotherapy, which has claimed many victims, especially the tuberculous, by trying to destroy the bacterial units which are vital components of all animal organisms.

4. Contagion.
If the preceding has been understood, there is no need presenting the case against contagion as Pasteur advocated it. It is not an argument, because Pasteur has already lost. Since it has been definitely proved over and over again that tuberculosis is endogenous, we only mention it. Both tuberculosis and pneumonia begin through pathological reflexes causing degeneration within the alveoli. (Vol. II, p. 38) Tissot states: "Pulmonary tissue is destroyed and replaced by tuberculous tissue in this order: (a) disintegration of the blood capillaries, (b) destruction of the alveolar epithelium with the free cells falling as debris, (c) proliferation by pediculation of the stroma* of the alveolar wall forming many embryonic cells." p. 41 reads: "The development of pneumonia follows the identical process, except that there is very little development of new embryonic cells, and those made are used in regeneration, while in tuberculosis they further degenerate to form the typical tuberculous tissue." Many series of photomicrographs verify these findings and show the endogenous development all the way through, including typical bacteria. Tissot continues in Vol. III, p. 239: "Since pneumococci are NOT found in the alveoli during the initial stages of the disease, but only well after the fever is under way, the pneumococci must be NOT the cause, but the consequence of the disease. Chilling of the thoracic wall, or trauma to that wall (rib fracture) easily cause pneumonia by the severe vasomotor changes in the alveoli. The traumatic origin alone is sufficient proof of the lack of specificity of pneumococci."[...]

COMMERCIALISM
Hume (p. 211) states: "Had it not been for the sale of sera and vaccines, nowadays grown to such vast proportions, Pasteur's germ theory of disease might before this have collapsed into obscurity." Tissot states (p. 347), "Dr. Charles Nicolle, professor at the College of France and Director of the Pasteur Institute of Tunis, said in an interview published February 3, 1934, 'The Pasteur Institute has a chance of considerable financial aid with the preparation of sera and vaccines. It is a chance to return a favor to the state for endowments. Then it is much better to have the government as a customer than a protector. It assures more regular and better receipts.' The Pasteur Institute is built on sera and vaccines and hence MUST sell. The Institute is THE pharmaceutical house of France. It is incredible to think that they don't know how useless the nostra really are after all their 'research.' " [...]

TERMINOLOGY
Bacteriological and biological terms should not be interchanged. It is better to coin words in order to avoid confusion. Tissot's use of the term "B. coli" where he is actually referring to the granular biont is damaging to his case. The term colon bacillus should be confined to the function given it by bacteriologists. Perhaps it is better to speak of the basic organism, the microzyma, one elaboration of which is the colon bacillus. You will recall that Tissot suggested the possible development of the "dumb-bell," haltère, stick-shaped biont as a direct outgrowth of the fibrinferment, the micrococcic granule, the biont which is the primal chemist. Thus we use here the term microzyma as Tissot often does, and as Béchamp always did, to refer to the granular biont. The term "bacterial form" has come to mean to most persons a mature bacterium. For that reason Tissot unknowingly confuses the issue when he says that all living organisms are made up entirely of the two bacterial units. Actually he is correct in the terminology in its pure sense, but because of the current connotation of the word bacteria, it would have been much better to coin a word such as biont. Bacteria are elaborate forms of perverted bionts and can be reconstructed into normal bionts again; so there is a very close relationship between the normal and the abnormal. Remember these few points when again studying this text. Again a matter of popular connotation leads us to suggest the use of the term "filament stage," rather than mold. Actually the terminology of Tissot is exactly correct, but again it leads to confusion. Recall that the word "insane" originally meant inspired, which was a desirable and honored condition. Now by popular connotation it has a much less honored significance. The same remarks are applicable to his use of the words "acute" and "chronic." The perverted biont form was observed to follow a definite cycle which usually can be correlated with the symptoms in the patient. Tissot, in his research, was primarily interested in the phase through which the bionts were passing. Consequently his use of "acute" and "chronic" is primarily in reference to the biont phase which usually does, but often does not, coincide with acute and chronic symptoms of the patient.

Source: J.R.Verner, C.W.Weiant, R.J.Watkins - Rational Bacteriology , available for free from http://www.soilandhealth.org

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